Charlotte Philosophy Discussion Group Message Board › artificial uteruses, nano-printers, and making synthetic humans

artificial uteruses, nano-printers, and making synthetic humans

A former member
Post #: 498

Artificial uterus
An artificial uterus (or womb) is a theoretical device that would allow for extracorporeal pregnancy or extrauterine fetal incubation (EUFI) by growing an embryo or fetus outside of the body of a female organism that would normally internally carry the embryo or fetus to term.

An artificial uterus, as a replacement organ, could be used to assist women with damaged or diseased uteri to bring the fetus to term.[1] This can potentially be performed as a switch from a natural uterus to an artificial uterus, thereby moving the threshold of fetal viability to a much earlier stage of pregnancy.

In this sense, it can be regarded as a neonatal incubator with very extended functions. Also, it can potentially be used for initiation of fetal development.

Furthermore, it could avail for performing, for example, fetal surgery procedures at an early stage instead of having to postpone them until term of pregnancy.


Gattaca

Gattaca is a 1997 science fiction film written and directed by Andrew Niccol. It stars Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman and Jude Law with supporting roles played by Loren Dean, Ernest Borgnine, Gore Vidal and Alan Arkin.

The film presents a biopunk vision of a future society driven by liberal eugenics where potential children are selected through preimplantation genetic diagnosis to ensure they possess the best hereditary traits of their parents.

A genetic registry database uses biometrics to instantly identify and classify those so created as "valids" while those conceived by traditional means are derisively known as "in-valids".

While genetic discrimination is forbidden by law, in practice it is easy to profile a person's genotype resulting in the valids qualifying for professional employment while the in-valids—considered more susceptible to disease, educational dysfunction and shorter lifespans—are relegated to menial jobs.

The movie draws on concerns over reproductive technologies which facilitate eugenics, and the possible consequences of such technological developments for society.

It also explores the idea of destiny and the ways in which it can and does govern lives.

Characters in Gattaca continually battle both with the society and with themselves to find their place in the world and who they are destined to be according to their genes.

The title is based on the initial letters of the four DNA nitrogenous bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine).

During the opening and closing credits, the letters G, A, T, and C are all highlighted.

The name Gattaca itself is the name of the fictional space agency shown in the film.

The film was a 1997 nominee for the Academy Award for Best Art Direction.


Disruptive technology



The theory
Christensen argues that disruptive innovations can hurt successful, well managed companies that are responsive to their customers and have excellent research and development.

These companies tend to ignore the markets most susceptible to disruptive innovations, because the markets have very tight profit margins and are too small to provide a good growth rate to an established (sizable) firm.

Thus disruptive technology provides an example of when the common business-world advice to "focus on the customer" ("stay close to the customer", "listen to the customer") can sometimes be strategically counterproductive.


Successful transfer of a zebra embryo to a domestic horse

Summary
The first successful birth of a zebra foal from a domestic horse mare following embryo transfer is described.

Seven consecutive non-surgical embryo collections, performed on a multiparous Grant's zebra mare (Equus burchelli) yielded six embryos.

Transfer of two embryos on different occasions to domestic recipient mares resulted in one pregnancy that terminated with the induced birth of a live male zebra foal on Day 366 of gestation.

The mare accepted and suckled the foal normally.

These findings indicate that between-species nonsurgical embryo transfer may provide a useful tool for conserving wild species of equids in captivity.


Polymerase chain reaction
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a scientific technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.


pcr machine is. ]
http://www.kickstarte...­

http://openpcr.org/...­


J.Craig Venter : Designing Life(Synthetic Bacteria)



Solve for X: Omri Amirav-Drory on synthetic life toolkits

Life may be the software that makes its own hardware, but where is the compiler?

If we plan to start programming life itself, we are going to need a radically different and better tool kit than the one available to geneticists today.

Omri lays out a concrete vision for how such a tool would work and for how it would be used to create the bio-products our future needs so badly.



TED 2023: Peter Weyland Speech


A former member
Post #: 499

Taiwan breeds green-glowing pigs


They claim that while other researchers have bred partly fluorescent pigs, theirs are the only pigs in the world which are green through and through.

The pigs are transgenic, created by adding genetic material from jellyfish into a normal pig embryo.

Bill Joy advocates for ending the 'Open Society' societal model due to asymmetric/singularity information catastrophes which could cause an extinction event.


Information asymmetry

Screening
Joseph E. Stiglitz pioneered the theory of screening. In this way the underinformed party can induce the other party to reveal their information.

They can provide a menu of choices in such a way that the choice depends on the private information of the other party.

Examples of situations where the seller usually has better information than the buyer are numerous but include used-car salespeople, mortgage brokers and loan originators, stockbrokers, Realtors, and real estate agents.

Examples of situations where the buyer usually has better information than the seller include estate sales as specified in a last will and testament, life insurance, or sales of old art pieces without prior professional assessment of their value.

This situation was first described by Kenneth J. Arrow in an article on health care in 1963.

George Akerlof in The Market for Lemons notices that, in such a market, the average value of the commodity tends to go down, even for those of perfectly good quality.

Because of information asymmetry, unscrupulous sellers can "spoof" items (like replica goods such as watches) and defraud the buyer.

As a result, many people not willing to risk getting ripped off will avoid certain types of purchases, or will not spend as much for a given item.

It is even possible for the market to decay to the point of nonexistence.

Although information asymmetry has recently been noted to be on the decline with the rise of the internet, which allows ignorant users to acquire hitherto unavailable information such as the costs of competing insurance policies, or the price of used cars, it is still heavily applied to human resource and personnel economics regarding incentive schemes when the employer cannot continually observe worker effort.


Bill Joy: What I'm worried about, what I'm excited about



Open society
The open society is a concept originally developed[when?] by philosopher Henri Bergson and then by Austrian and British philosopher Karl Popper.

In open societies, government is purported to be responsive and tolerant, and political mechanisms are said to be transparent and flexible.

Advocates claim that it is opposed to closed society.

The state in an open society would keep no secrets from itself in the public sense;

it would be a non-authoritarian society in which all are trusted with the knowledge of all. Political freedoms and human rights are claimed as the foundation of an open society.[by whom?]

A former member
Post #: 599








By replacing the nuclei of egg cells from an elephant with those taken from the mammoth's somatic cells, embryos with mammoth DNA could be produced and planted into elephant wombs for delivery, he said.
Sooam will use an Indian elephant for its somatic cell nucleus transfer.

The somatic cells are body cells, such as those of internal organs, skin, bones and blood.

"This will be a really tough job, but we believe it is possible because our institute is good at cloning animals," Hwang In-Sung said.

South Korean experts have previously cloned animals including a cow, a cat, dogs, a pig and a wolf.

Last October Hwang Woo-Suk unveiled eight cloned coyotes in a project sponsored by a provincial government.


Somatic cell
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A somatic cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.[1]

By contrast, gametes are cells that fuse during sexual reproduction, for organisms that reproduce sexually; Germ cells are cells that give rise to gametes;

Stem cells are cells that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types.

For example, in mammals, somatic cells make up all the internal organs, skin, bones, blood, and connective tissue.

By contrast, mammalian germ cells give rise to spermatozoa and ova which fuse during fertilization to produce a cell called a zygote, which develops into an embryo.

Somatic cells are diploid.[1]

The word "somatic" is derived from the Greek word sōma, meaning "body".

A former member
Post #: 602
Gene therapy has 'dual usage'. A gene therapy virus for one species of animal may have usage for another species of animal namely the human animal.

Some gene therapy implementations cause infertility.


The Intersection of Science & Security - Panel #1



The Intersection of Science & Security - Panel #2



The Intersection of Science & Security - Panel #3



The Intersection of Science and Security: a Case Study Approach

Continuing the global dialogue with the scientific and science policy community with a focus on Asia and the Western Pacific

On December 9, 2011 the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) sponsored a workshop, The Intersection of Science and Security:
a Case Study Approach, Continuing the global dialogue with the scientific and science policy community: focus on Asia and the Western Pacific.

The purpose of this workshop was to give attendees a greater understanding of dual use research, including an awareness of strategies for managing dual use research of concern and an appreciation of how these issues are being addressed around the globe.

The workshop utilized published articles as case studies, involving Mousepox and a SARS-like virus, as examples of dual use research of concern that highlight issues which investigators, institutions, journal editors, governments, and the scientific and security policy communities need to consider.

In addition to presentations of the case studies, there were discussions among all panelists and attendees on global science and security issues as well as those of special interest within Asia and the Western Pacific, including information on training and education resources currently available.

A former member
Post #: 638
about successful alternatives of living organisms form using DNA to using XNA, Xeno Nucleic Acids.


[ video begins by discussing XNA then to discussing porn and the brain. ]
Your Brain on Porn



Polymers perform non-DNA evolution
19 April 2012



Scientists have found that six polymer alternatives to DNA can pass on genetic information, and have evolved one type to specifically bind target molecules.1 They say that their work reveals both broader chemical possibilities for these key life functions and provides a powerful tool for nanotechnology and medicine.


HNA could just as easily have been the molecule of life as DNA it now seems

© Science/AAAS
'There is no overwhelming functional imperative for life to be based on DNA or RNA,' says Phil Holliger from the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK, who led the team. 'Other polymers can perform these functions, at least at a basic level.'
Holliger's team's xeno-nucleic acid (XNA) polymers each replace DNA's ribofuranose sugar ring with six other cyclic structures that can still form helical chains and base pairings.
But rather than using relatively inefficient chemical synthesis, the scientists wanted to exploit polymerase and reverse transcriptase enzymes to copy genetic information from DNA templates to XNAs.
In living organisms, polymerases can make RNA from nucleotide monomers using existing DNA strands as templates.
Reverse transcriptases can then create a copy of the original DNA strand from that RNA in the same way.


Xeno Nucleic Acids - Nucleic acid analogues

Nucleic acid analogues are compounds structurally similar (analog) to naturally occurring RNA and DNA, used in medicine and in molecular biology research.
Nucleic acids are chains of nucleotides, which are composed of three parts: a phosphate backbone, a pucker-shaped pentose sugar, either ribose or deoxyribose, and one of four nucleobases.
An analogue may have any of these altered.
Typically the analogue nucleobases confer, among other things, different base pairing and base stacking proprieties. Examples include universal bases, which can pair with all four canon bases, and phosphate-sugar backbone analogues such as PNA, which affect the properties of the chain (PNA can even form a triple helix).[1]

Artificial nucleic acids include peptide nucleic acid (PNA), Morpholino and locked nucleic acid (LNA), as well as glycol nucleic acid (GNA) and threose nucleic acid (TNA).
Each of these is distinguished from naturally occurring DNA or RNA by changes to the backbone of the molecule.

A former member
Post #: 702
more possibilities about re-printing us existing type humans artificially and then also at some point printing some 'better' humans...who will then be at some point be walking around and talking with us 'normal' type humans.




Published on Jun 4, 2012 by TEDtalksDirector

http://www.ted.com...­ Throughout human evolution, multiple versions of humans co-existed.
Could we be mid-upgrade now?
At TEDxSummit, Juan Enriquez sweeps across time and space to bring us to the present moment -- and shows how technology is revealing evidence that suggests rapid evolution may be under way.

A former member
Post #: 703

creating brain states and downloading memories..push and pull information to the brain..

Ed Boyden: A light switch for neurons


A former member
Post #: 1,024
Gene therapy is now restoring eye sight, at times, to mechanically broken corneas.




The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

The cornea, with the anterior chamber and lens, refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power.
In humans, the refractive power of the cornea is approximately 43 dioptres.

While the cornea contributes most of the eye's focusing power, its focus is fixed.

The curvature of the lens, on the other hand, can be adjusted to "tune" the focus depending upon the object's distance.

Medical terms related to the cornea often start with the prefix "kerat-" from the Greek word κέρας, horn.



The Eyes Have It: Lab-Made Corneas Restore Vision

“This study … is the first to show that an artificially fabricated cornea can integrate with the human eye and stimulate regeneration,” said May Griffith of the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, who led the study.

“With further research, this approach could help restore sight to millions of people who are waiting for a donated human cornea for transplantation.” [Reuters]

The biosynthetic cornea, which mimicked typical tissue’s appearance, integrated with natural cells and nerves to allow tear production and touch sensitivity.

As shown in this (somewhat graphic) New Scientist video, doctors first sutured the corneas in place.

After two years, the neighboring cells’ natural growth anchored the biosynthetics down.



A former member
Post #: 1,036

maybe once we can make all our organs synthetically we may upload our 'minds' to our escape replacement bodies.




Scientists have grown a kidney in a laboratory and shown that it works when implanted into a living animal.
The work is an important step towards the longer-term goal of growing personalised replacement organs that could be transplanted into people with kidney failure.

More than 51,000 people are treated every year in the UK for end-stage kidney failure and 90% of those are on the waiting list for organs are waiting for kidneys.
A shortage of organs means that every year fewer than 3,000 transplants are carried out, however, while more than 3,000 people die waiting for a transplant.

A former member
Post #: 1,050
printing organs


3D Printing: Make anything you want


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