Rob Burns, a former Green Party candidate for the US House, and PhD. student of political economy, says: "Eisenhower’s original goal for the Interstate Highway System was completion in 10 years. Though it eventually took nearly 40 years, much of it was completed within only 15 years. And though the program eventually invested $450 billion (in today’s dollars), it has been paid for entirely without federal subsidy: the entire federal investment was paid for through user fees (the federal vehicle fuel excise). Therefore an Interstate Railway System could follow that precedent. A ten year goal, uncompromising 220 mph speeds standards, $450 billion in federal investment, state and local partners adding additional funding and implementation input, and all paid for by user fees (passenger rail fares,freight charges, private freight hauler, and private passenger hauler access fees). Few today would express regret that we spent $450 billion on the Interstate Highway System. Even fewer will regret in the future that we embarked on an Interstate Railway System today."