We shall familiarize ourselves with one of famous AI Memos that helped shape Scheme and Common Lisp and others. This one is by Guy Lewis, Jr. Steele and Gerald Jay Sussman, whom you may recognize from both languages I mentioned or their other Lambda the Ultimate series of papers.
We demonstrate how to model the following common programmings constructs in terms of an applicative order language similar to LISP: Simple Recursion, Iteration, Compound Statements and Expressions, GO TO and Assignment, Continuation-Passing, Escape Expressions, Fluid Variables, Call by Name, Call by Need, and Call by Reference. The models require only (possibly self-referent) lambda application, conditionals, and (rarely) assignment. No complex data structures such as stacks are used. The models are transparent, involving only local syntactic transformations. This paper is partly tutorial in intent, gathering all the models together for purposes of context.
AI Memos site with that particular paper: http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/5790
PDF link: http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/5790/AIM-353.pdf?sequence=2
By the PDF alone (if nothing else I said earlier) you can say it's dated. :-)