Skeptics of Tucson Message Board › mes Additional Fallacies
|A former member||
I would like to add a few more logical fallacies that I believe are important because they are used so much today, but are not in any of the categories of traditional fallacies listed by the Nizkor Poject (www.nizkor.org)
My favorites are:
1. Cartesian Affliction. Something is held to be true by simply stating it; e.g.,"God exists." This has been sometimes encompased in the petitio principii, or Begging the Question fallacy.
2. Non Sequitor, or Fallacy of the Consequent. An argument so loose that no cogency can be discovered in it.
Other frequently erroneous reasoning include the Fallacies of Ambiguity. (Ambiguity of language leads to incorrect argument.) (Reasons, if given, are irrelevant to the conclusion's truth or falsity.)
1. Fallacy of Equivocation., or Fallacy of the Ambiguous Middle. A word or phrase that is essential to an argument is used in different senses; e.g., Mary (Jesus's mother) was a virgin. In the original Hebrew Bible , the word "alma" means a young woman. It was mistakenly translated as "virgin". This fallacy frequently occurs in translations.
2. Fallacy of Amphiboly. A phrase or sentence has two or more meanings as a result of the awkward construction.; e.g., "Clara Schumann was too busy to compose herself."
3. Fallacy of Accent. Changing the meaning of a statement by accenting some word or phrase.
4. Ignoratiio elenchi. Intentionally or unintentionally misunderstanding a statement and then refuting it or proving it.
The fallacies of Division and Composition are often placed in this category. See above.