Ethnography is a qualitative research method that is used to explore the interaction of people with in a cultural or setting. It is sometimes just called field studies.
Borrowed (ie stolen) directly from social anthropology Ethnography is often an underused technique in UX circles.
The output on these studies can to a written report or a graphical representation or even a visual journey.
This really is a skill that appears easy at first, but is difficult to master as it's mainly about observing and documenting efficiently.
The seed books for November 2012 are: