• Biweekly Discussion - Do We Need Big Ag, GMOs & Pesticides?

    We're currently hosting our discussions at Café Walnut, near the corner of 7th & Walnut in Olde City, just across the street from Washington Square Park. The cafe's entrance is below street level down some stairs, which can be confusing if it's your first time. Our group meets in the large room upstairs. Since we're using the cafe's space, they ask that each person attending the meetup at least purchase a drink or snack. Please don't bring any food or drinks from outside. If you're hungry enough to eat a meal, they have more substantial fare such as salads, soups & sandwiches which are pretty good and their prices are reasonable. The cafe is fairly easy to get to if you're using public transit. With SEPTA, take the Market-Frankford Line & get off at the 5th Street Station (corner of 5th & Market), and walk 2 blocks south on 5th and then turn right on Walnut Street and walk 2 blocks west. With PATCO, just get off at the 9th-10th & Locust stop and walk 3 blocks east & 1 block north. For those who are driving, parking in the neighborhood can be tough to find. If you can't find a spot on the street, I'd suggest parking in the Washington Square parking deck at 249 S 6th Street which is just a half block away. ---------------------------------------------- DO LOCALLY-BASED ORGANIC FARMING & FARMERS MARKETS HOLD THE KEY TO A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE... OR DO WE NEED BIG AGRIBUSINESSES, GMOs & PESTICIDES? INTRODUCTION: How should scientific skeptics approach debates about the future of agriculture as we face the challenges of climate change? Many environmentalists are very concerned with addressing climate change, but they also tend to be somewhat wary of pesticides & GMOs due to concerns about the potential of negative impacts on the health of those who consume GM foods & foods with pesticides residues, and there's also widespread concern about animals - particularly birds & insects - that could be harmed by pesticide exposure. Many environmentalists also fear that modern agribusiness is too powerful economically & politically, and so they tend to favor a transition to locally-based organic farming that does not use chemical fertilizers, pesticides or herbicides. But are these fears justified by the evidence? What do most scientists say? The central question we'll be addressing in this meetup: "Is locally-based organic farming enough to feed the world, or do we need large-scale industrial farming that uses pesticides & genetically-modified crops, particularly as agriculture faces the challenges posed by climate change?" Note that we will NOT be addressing diet & nutrition issues related to the crops we're talking about. For example, we won't be debating whether or not soy increases your estrogen levels, or why peanut allergies appear to be increasing, or whether high-fructose corn syrup is a major culprit behind the obesity epidemic, if gluten leads to "leaky gut syndrome", if raw foods have far more nutrients, or if certain food like kale & acai qualify as "superfoods". I plan to cover some of these nutritional issues in a future meetup. Our health concerns for this meetup will be narrowly focused on the effects of genetic-modification and pesticide & herbicide residues. We also will NOT be addressing allegations of corrupt business practices or undue political influence from major agribusiness firms like Monsanto, nor will we be discussing the economics of agricultural imports or the "fair trade" movement. I may address these issues in a future meetup. To the extent that we'll discuss economics in this meetup, it will just be in the limited contexts of whether or not "buying local" helps the local economy and how the amount of food waste relates to food prices and the costs associated with preventing waste. WHAT'S THE SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS? AND WHAT'S THE POLITICAL ORIENTATION OF THE SCIENTISTS? As usual, our starting point for addressing this question will be to look at the expert consensus among scientists. In 2015, the Pew Research Center polled 3,748 members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) about a range of controversial scientific issues and compared their views to polls of the American public. The AAAS is a science policy advocacy group and it's not necessarily representative of the entire America scientific establishment, but it's one of the only large scientific organizations that has been polled on a large number of issues. Since a STEM degree is common for AAAS members but not required and many members are just high school science teachers or STEM professionals with a bachelor's degree, we'll use the views of the 1,627 members who are working PhD scientists as a rough proxy for the expert consensus. I've included a graphic from the report above, and you can find the results here: https://www.pewresearch.org/science/2015/07/23/an-elaboration-of-aaas-scientists-views As you can see from the poll, almost 93% of AAAS earth scientists believe that climate change is mostly due to human activity. Among their working PhD Earth scientists, 78% say climate change is a "very serious" problem, 17% say it's a "somewhat serious" problem, and only 5% say it's a "not too serious" problem, and this is similar to the breakdown for the rest of the AAAS. The AAAS member were asked if growing world population "will be a major problem because there won't be enough food and resources", and 83% of the working PhD scientists in the AAAS said yes, so food shortages are another concern they take seriously. A strong majority of the AAAS biomedical scientists & chemists (92% & 89% respectively) say that it's safe to eat genetically-modified foods, and the rest of the AAAS members agree at only slight lower level (88%). Compare this to the general public, where only 37% of Americans think GM foods are safe to eat. The general members of the AAAS appear to be a bit more wary of foods grown with pesticides, with only 68% of their members saying they're safe to eat, but among the PhD scientists in the AAAS, 70% of the biomedical scientists and 81% of the chemists say they're safe to eat. Once again, compare this to the general public, where only 28% of Americans think foods grown with pesticides are safe to eat. It's interesting to note that in both the case of GM foods & pesticides, the confidence in their safety increases as we move from laypeople, to the general AAAS members, to PhD scientists who work in an adjacent field, to PhD scientists who work directly with the technology in question - i.e. biomedical science is the field that studies the genetics of organisms & uses genetic modification to alter their genes, just as chemistry is the field that produces and tests the efficacy of the pesticides & herbicides used in agriculture. In case you're wondering about the political orientation of AAAS scientists and how it may influence their views, we've got a poll from 2009 that can give us some insight: https://www.people-press.org/2009/07/09/section-4-scientists-politics-and-religion/ As you can see from this 2nd poll, most AAAS members self-identify as liberal (38%) or very liberal (14%), although there's also a sizable amount of self-identified as "moderates" (35%) and a minority identify as "conservatives" (9%). Political affiliation parallels ideology, with 55% saying they're Democrats, 32% independents, 6% Republicans, and 4% saying "other/none". Most independents in the AAAS say they lean Democrat, so that with leaners it's a 81% Democrat to 12% Republican ratio. When asked if they think government is usually wasteful & inefficient, 58% of AAAS members disagreed. However, when asked if business corprations generally strike a fair balance between profits & public interest, 78% disagreed. When asked if it's the responsibility of government to take care of the less fortunate, 78% of AAAS members said yes. So overall, it's fair to say that the AAAS appears to be a fairly left-leaning group in terms of its members' political orientation. Thus, it's hard to argue that the relatively pro-GMO & pro-pesticide stances of its members is based on a politically right-wing, pro-corporate & anti-regulation bias unless they conspired to hide their ideology. THE "PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE" & HOW IT PERTAINS TO CLIMATE CHANGE & THE TECHNOLOGICAL RISKS WE TAKE TO ADDRESS IT: I hope that most of our members are familiar with the "precautionary principle" - i.e. a principle or approach to policymaking based on a social responsibility to protect the public from exposure to harm when some scientific studies have found even a plausible risk. The precautionary principle suggests that these protections can be relaxed only if further scientific findings emerge that provide very strong evidence that no harm will result. On an individual level, the precautionary principle accords with the old saying "better safe than sorry". Wikipedia provides some basic details: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle Way back in November of 2017, we had a meetup entitled "Climate Change & Bad Arguments" where we covered Greg Craven's viral YouTube video "The Most Terrifying Thing You'll Ever See" that proposed to solve the uncertainty surrounding climate change with a binary risk analysis identical to Pascal's Wager, a form of the precautionary principle: https://www.meetup.com/Philly-Skeptics/events/241725185/ As we discussed in that meetup, Craven's analysis is flawed because he's proposing two false dichotomies - i.e. "do something" vs "do nothing" and "good outcome" vs "catastrophe". In reality, doing "something" to address climate change falls on a spectrum - i.e. we can spend anywhere between 0% & 100% of our discretionary spending on it, and that spending can be allotted to 1 or 2 big mitigation programs or thousands of smaller programs. The risks & harms of climate change also falls on a spectrum, as do the risks & harms of each mitigation technology we employ. We have to figure out which technological risks we need to take in order to reduce the risks & harms of climate change. For example, if the use of pesticides & herbicides increases certain health risks (e.g. cancer), is that a fair trade-off for decreasing the risk of catastrophic crop failure due to insects, bacterial & fungal infections? Or if a GM crop might increase the rate of certain health problems (e.g. food allergy reactions) but is more drought resistant, is that a fair trade-off? Answering these sorts of questions requires a detailed risk management & cost-benefit analysis that a binary Pascal's Wager can't help us with. We discussed how this risk management & cost-benefit analysis works with energy technologies back in June of this year. We had a meetup where we discussed whether solar & wind energy can supply all of our energy needs in the near future, or if we need to expand nuclear power, biofuels and/or fracking as part of the solution to climate change. Many laypeople who are concerned about climate change are adamantly opposed to nuclear power & fracking because they believe they're unsafe, and many of them have essentially given up on biofuels as well. However, most scientists favor building more nuclear power plants & putting more research into bioengineered fuels, and about a third of scientists are even in favor of expanding fracking as a "bridge technology" to get us off burning coal more quickly: https://www.meetup.com/Philly-Skeptics/events/nfbkqqyzjbmb/ There are those who claim the "precautionary principle" suggests we should avoid nuclear power if we have even minor doubts about its safety. However, we forget that the same principle would suggest that if we have even minor doubts about the ability of solar & wind energy to allow us to rapidly transition away from fossil fuels & that this might lead to catastrophic climate change, we should accept some minor risks from nuclear power & include it as part of our portfolio of power generation technologies. (The same argument could apply to biofuels & even fracking, although there's less scientific support for the latter.) Similarly, one could make a similar argument for using GMOs & pesticides. The precautionary principle would initially seem to suggest that we should avoid GMOs & pesticides if we have even minor doubts about their safety. However, upon reflection, one can see that the precautionary principle suggests we may have to accept some minor risks and use GMOs & pesticides (albeit with caution) if we have even minor doubts about the ability of organic farming to feed the world. This is especially true as we face tougher growing conditions & more pests due to climate change, all of which make catastrophic crop failures and famines more likely. RELEVANT MATERIAL FROM PAST MEETUPS: Back in July, we had a meetup where we addressed public concerns about various trace chemicals contaminating the water supply, and in the 2nd section of the discussion we discussed the herbicide Atrazine. Tyrone Hayes, a biologist at UC Berkely, claimed that Atrazine was a dangerous endorcine disruptor that was flowing into streams & interfering in the sexual development of frogs, but his study's results couldn't be replicated & he's recently taken to propagating dubious conspiracy theories about Atrazine's maker, Syngenta. You can find out more details if you look at the discussion outline: https://www.meetup.com/Philly-Skeptics/events/rgrhxqyzkblc/ ----------------------------------------------- DIRECTIONS ON HOW TO PREPARE FOR OUR DISCUSSION: The videos & articles you see linked below are intended to give you a basic overview of some of the major debates over conventional vs organic farming. As usual, I certainly don't expect you to read all the articles & watch all the videos prior to attending our discussion. The easiest way to prepare for our discussion is to just watch the numbered videos linked under each section - the videos come to about about 49 minutes total. The articles marked with asterisks are just there to supply additional details. You can browse and look at whichever ones you want, but don't worry - we'll cover the stuff you missed in our discussion. In terms of the discussion format, my general idea is that we'll address the topics in the order presented here. As you can see, I've listed some questions under each topic heading to stimulate discussion. We'll do our best to answer most of them. I figure we'll spend about 30 minutes on each section. ---------------------------------------------- I. THE SCIENCE BEHIND ORGANIC FARMING - AND WHY MANY SKEPTICS ARE SUSPICIOUS OF ITS CLAIMS: - WHO WAS RUDOLF STEINER & WHAT IS "BIODYNAMIC" FARMING? - IS DISMISSING ORGANIC FARMING BY LINKING IT TO ITS MYSTICAL FORE-RUNNER A VALID ARGUMENT, OR IS THAT A TYPE OF "GENETIC FALLACY"? (NO PUN INTENDED - THE "GENETIC FALLACY" IS A FALLACY OF IRRELEVANCE THAT MENTIONS SOMETHING'S ORIGINS.) - ARE ORGANIC FERTILIZERS LIKE MANURE, GUANO & FOOD WASTE MORE SUSTAINABLE THAN CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS BUT NO LESS EFFECTIVE? OR ARE SYNTHETIC FERTILIZERS MORE EFFECTIVE & EASIER TO TRANSPORT BECAUSE THEY'RE MORE CONCENTRATED & DRAWN FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES? - ARE ORGANIC PESTICIDES LIKE ROTENONE & PYRETHRIN SAFER BECAUSE THEY'RE "NATURAL", OR IS THIS ACTUALLY A LIMITATION THAT KEEPS THEM FROM BEING AS SAFE OR EFFECTIVE AS SYNTHETIC PESTICIDES? - HOW EFFECTIVE ARE PESTICIDE ALTERNATIVES LIKE INTRODUCING NATURAL PREDATORS & MIXED CROPPING? - IS ORGANIC FARMING UNIQUE IN AVOIDING SOIL DEGRADATION THROUGH CROP ROTATION, OR IS THAT DONE IN CONVENTIONAL FARMING AS WELL? DO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CONSUMER DEMAND FOR NITROGEN-FIXING LEGUMES VS OTHER CROPS INTERFERE WITH THIS? - IS ORGANIC FARMING MORE SUSTAINABLE - I.E. DOES IT REQUIRE LESS WATER & FERTILIZER AND LEAD TO LESS LAND DEGRADATION & POLLUTION THAN CONVENTIONAL FARMING? OR IS IT MERELY LESS INTENSIVE & THUS REQUIRES MORE LAND AREA, LEADING TO MORE DEFORESTATION? - IS ORGANIC PRODUCE REALLY HEALTHIER THAN WHAT COMES FROM CONVENTIONAL FARMING? IS THIS BECAUSE LESS USE OF PESTICIDE FORCES THEM TO PRODUCE MORE ANTIOXIDANTS? - WHY IS THE "ORGANIC" LABEL CONSIDERED SOMEWHAT ARBITRARY & DECEPTIVE BY MANY SKEPTICS? - WHY DO MANY SKEPTICS DOUBT THE USEFULNESS OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS? 1) Kurzgesagt, "Is Organic Really Better? Healthy Food or Trendy Scam?" (video - 9:20 min.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PmM6SUn7Es * David Gorski, "Biodynamic farming: Like anthroposophic medicine, only on the farm" https://respectfulinsolence.com/2018/03/19/biodynamic-farming-like-anthroposophic-medicine-only-on-the-farm/ * Christie Wilcox, "Mythbusting 101: Organic Farming > Conventional Agriculture" https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/science-sushi/httpblogsscientificamericancomscience-sushi20110718mythbusting-101-organic-farming-conventional-agriculture/ * Brian Dunning, "Organic vs. Conventional Agriculture" https://skeptoid.com/episodes/4166 * Tamar Haspel, "Is organic agriculture really better for the environment?" https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/food/is-organic-agriculture-really-better-for-the-environment/2016/05/14/e9996dce-17be-11e6-924d-838753295f9a_story.html? * Julius McGee, “Organic farms don't have the tiny carbon footprint they like to tout. But they could” https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jul/21/organic-farms-carbon-footprint-climate-change * Steven Novella, “Organic Pesticides” https://theness.com/neurologicablog/index.php/organic-pesticides/ * Brad Plumer, “Is organic food any healthier? Most scientists are still skeptical.” https://www.vox.com/2014/7/16/5899347/organic-produce-debate-healthier-more-nutritious . II. FARMERS MARKETS & THE "LOCAVORE" & "IMPERFECT PRODUCE" MOVEMENTS - AND WHY MANY ECONOMISTS ARE SUSPICIOUS OF THEIR BENEFITS: - IS THE URBAN MIDDLE-CLASS ENTHUSIASM FOR FARMERS MARKETS MOSTLY DRIVEN BY NOSTALGIA & VIRTUE SIGNALING, OR IS IT A RATIONAL RESPONSE TO PROBLEMS WITH BIG AGRIBUSINESSES & MAJOR GROCERY STORE CHAINS? - DOES BUYING FOOD FROM FARMERS' MARKETS HELP THE ECONOMY BY KEEPING MORE MONEY CIRCULATING LOCALLY INSTEAD OF GOING TO RICH CEOs IN DISTANT CITIES & FOREIGN WORKERS WHO "STEAL OUR JOBS"? - WHY ARE MANY ECONOMISTS DOUBTFUL OF BOTH "BUY LOCAL" INITIATIVES & IMPORT TARIFFS DESIGNED TO GET US TO "BUY AMERICAN"? IS IT BECAUSE THEY HAVE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF UNSEEN FACTORS LAYPEOPLE OVERLOOK, OR DO THEY HAVE SIMPLISTIC MODELS THAT OVERVALUE "FREE TRADE" & UNDERVALUE LOCAL ECONOMIC STABILITY? - FOR PEOPLE IN COLDER CLIMATES, IS THERE A TRADEOFF BETWEEN "BUYING LOCAL" & GAINING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF EATING FRESH PRODUCE, SINCE DURING WINTER THE ONLY LOCAL PRODUCE WOULD HAVE TO BE CANNED OR FROZEN? - DO MOST OF THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS OF AGRICULTURE STEM FROM THE PRODUCTION PHASE? IF SO, IS JUDGING HOW "GREEN" PRODUCE IS BASED ON "FOOD MILES" WRONG? - IS GROWING YOUR OWN FOOD IN A HOME GARDEN A GOOD WAY TO SAVE MONEY - IF YOU DON'T INCLUDE THE COST OF YOUR LABOR (OR CONSIDER IT EXERCISE)? IS A HOME GARDEN MORE EFFICIENT & "GREEN" THAN A LARGE-SCALE FARM, OR DOES IT REQUIRE MORE RESOURCES FOR ITS OUTPUT BECAUSE IT LACKS "ECONOMY OF SCALE"? - DO BIG FARMS, PACKING HOUSES & GROCERY STORES GENERATE LOTS OF FOOD WASTE, OR IS IT MOSTLY DUE TO DINERS AT RESTAURANTS & GROCERY SHOPPERS NOT EATING ALL OF WHAT THEY BOUGHT? - DOES DECOMPOSING FOOD RELEASE A LOT OF METHANE THAT CONTRIBUTES TO CLIMATE CHANGE? CAN THIS BE AVOIDED BY BETTER COMPOSTING METHODS? - SHOULD WE TAX FRESH PRODUCE FOR THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IT CREATES WHEN IT'S WASTED? WOULD HIGHER-PRICED FRESH PRODUCE MOTIVATE PEOPLE TO WASTE LESS OR JUST HURT THE POOR? - IF THE MARKET SHIFTS AWAY FROM FRESH PRODUCE TO FROZEN & CANNED FOODS, WOULD IT HELP CUT FOOD WASTE? DOES THIS SACRFICE HEALTHINESS FOR LESS WASTE, OR ARE FROZEN & CANNED PRODUCE JUST AS HEALTHY AS FRESH? - IS A LOT OF FOOD WASTE DUE TO OUR IRRATIONAL AVERSION TO "UGLY PRODUCE"? DO NEEDLESSLY EARLY "SELL BY" & "BEST USED BY" DATES EXACERBATE TO THIS PROBLEM? - CAN FOOD WASTE BE REDUCED IF WE CAN PERSUADE CONSUMERS TO BUY DISCOUNTED "UGLY PRODUCE" THAT WOULD OTHERWISE BE THROWN AWAY? OR IS THIS "UGLY PRODUCE" USUALLY USED FOR PROCESSED FOODS OR ANIMAL FEED? 2a) Brian Dunning, "inFact: Locally Grown Produce" (video - 3:58 min.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xg747U4zbls 2b) Morgan Gold, "Ugly Produce Boxes are a SCAM" (video - 5:41 min, start at 0:30) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AxN4PvcI9SI&t=30s * IGM Experts Panel, "Free Trade [and NAFTA]" (poll of top economists) https://www.igmchicago.com/surveys/free-trade * Steve Sexton, "The Inefficiency of Local Food" http://freakonomics.com/2011/11/14/the-inefficiency-of-local-food/ * Raz Godelnik, "3 Reasons Why Freakonomics is Wrong About Local Food" https://www.triplepundit.com/story/2011/3-reasons-why-freakonomics-wrong-about-local-food/70261 * Dan Allen, "Don’t Start a Veggie Garden to Save Money" https://www.huffpost.com/entry/dont-start-a-veggie-garde_b_1473974 * Jon Frandsen, "More than a third of food is wasted: Will tax breaks, new [expiration date] labels and 'ugly' produce help?" https://www.google.com/amp/s/amp.usatoday.com/amp/444032001 * Chavie Lieber, "A scientist on the myth of ugly produce and food waste: Startups Misfits Market and Imperfect Produce say they’re rescuing food that would otherwise be wasted. Sarah Taber is calling bullshit" https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2019/2/26/18240399/food-waste-ugly-produce-myths-farms * Anahad O'Connor, "Really? The Claim: Fresh Produce Has More Nutrients Than Canned" https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/27/really-the-claim-fresh-produce-has-more-nutrients-than-canned/ . III. THE SCIENCE BEHIND GENETICALLY-MODIFIED CROPS - AND WHY MOST SKEPTICS THINK THEY'RE NOT ONLY SAFE BUT VERY USEFUL: - IS MOST OF THE POPULAR OPPOSITION TO GMOs & "FRANKENFOODS" DUE TO A FALLACIOUS "APPEAL TO NATURE"? DO LAYPEOPLE THINK A GMO'S ALTERED DNA CAN IN TURN ALTER THE DNA OF HUMANS WHO EAT IT? - ARE "CISGENIC" GM CROPS COMPARABLE TO TRADITIONAL FORMS OF CROSS-BREEDING? ARE "TRANSGENIC" GM CROPS MORE "UNNATURAL" & THEREFORE MORE RISKY, OR ARE THE TARGETED GENETIC CHANGES IN THEM STILL SAFER THAN THE RANDOM MUTATIONS WE GET IN ALL CROPS FROM BACKGROUND RADIATION? - HOW DO GENE-EDITED CROPS PRODUCE WITH CRISPR DIFFER FROM TRANSGENIC & CISGENIC CROPS, AND WHY AREN'T THEY CONSIDERED "GENETICALLY-MODIFIED"? - HAS THE CONSUMPTION OF GM FOODS BEEN LINKED WITH A HIGHER RISK OF CERTAIN DISEASES? DID A STUDY LINK GM CORN WITH TUMORS IN LAB RATS, OR WAS IT POORLY DESIGNED? - COULD GM FOODS BE BEHIND THE RECENT INCREASE IN FOOD ALLERGIES? EVEN IF THEY DON'T INCREASE ALLEGY RATES, DO GMOs POSE HIDDEN RISKS FOR THOSE WITH FOOD ALLERGIES? - IS IT TRUE THAT A GM TOMATO WITH A FISH GENE KILLED A MAN WHO HAD A FISH ALLERGY, OR IS THIS AN URBAN LEGEND SINCE THAT TOMATO WAS NEVER EVEN RELEASED TO THE COMMERCIAL MARKET? HOW DID THE "FISH TOMATO" DIFFER FROM THE "FLAVR SAVR" TOMATO? - WHY HASN'T "GOLDEN RICE" SOLVED VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD? IS IT MOSTLY BECAUSE ANTI-GMO ACTIVISTS BLOCKED ITS ADOPTION, OR THAT GOLDEN RICE HAS LOWER YIELD THAN NON-GM RICE WHICH SLOWED IT ADOPTION, OR THAT VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IS SIMPLY TOO BIG OF A PROBLEM FOR A SIMPLE SOLUTION? - SHOULD THE PLANT-BASED "IMPOSSIBLE BURGER" BE CONSIDERED "GENETICALLY MODIFIED" SINCE IT CONTAINS A TYPE OF HEME (LEGHAEMOGLOBIN) MADE BY GM YEAST? COULD THE HEME IN THESE BURGERS LEAD TO CANCER, AS PETA CLAIMS? - IF THERE'S EVEN SOME SLIGHT DOUBTS AMONG SCIENTISTS ABOUT THE SAFETY OF GM FOODS, SHOULD THEY BE LABELED? WHY DO MANY SKEPTICS SEE MANDATORY GMO LABELING AS FEAR-MONGERING & AKIN TO "TEACH THE CONTROVERSY" IN EVOLUTION DEBATES? - ARE "TERMINATOR SEEDS" A BIG PROBLEM WITH CERTAIN GMOs, OR HAS THIS NEVER BEEN INTRODUCED COMMERCIALLY? - DO GM CROPS PREDISPOSE US TOWARDS MONOCULTURES THAT COULD LEAD TO MASSIVE CROP FAILURES, OR CAN THEY HELP WITH CROP DIVERSITY? - DOES NICHOLAS NASSIM TALEB'S STATISTICAL APPROACH TO GMO RISKS MAKE SENSE - I.E. DOES GENETIC MODIFICATION OF CROPS CREATE MORE "UNKNOWN UNKNOWNS" & POSE A NON-NEGLIGIBLE RISK OF "GLOBAL RUIN" FOR OUR FOOD SUPPLY? - ARE GM CROPS NECESSARY TO BOOST CROP YIELDS AS THE CLIMATE WARMS - ESP. IN THE TROPICS, RAINFALL BECOMES MORE ERRATIC, AND NORTHERN LATITUDES WITH LESS SUNLIGHT ARE OPENED UP TO FARMING? 3a) Kurzgesagt, "Are GMOs Good or Bad? Genetic Engineering & Our Food" (video - 9:02 min.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7TmcXYp8xu4 3b) WSJ, "Is Gene Editing the Future of Farming?" (video - 5:08 min.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vnAjbc_Hxjo * Niina Heikkinen, “Genetically Engineered Crops Are Safe and Possibly Good for Climate Change: The National Academy of Sciences reaffirmed GMO safety and pointed to the potential for future improvements.” https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/genetically-engineered-crops-are-safe-and-possibly-good-for-climate-change/ * David Mikkelson, "Fact Check: Doctors have confirmed that consumption of genetically modified tomatoes killed a man" [Rating: False] https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/gmoverdose/ * Tom Philpott, "WTF Happened to Golden Rice?" https://www.motherjones.com/food/2016/02/golden-rice-still-showing-promise-still-not-field-ready/ * Beth Mole, "PETA roasts Impossible Burger for rat tests,suggests patties cause cancer" https://arstechnica.com/science/2018/08/peta-roasts-impossible-burger-for-rat-tests-suggests-patties-cause-cancer/ * Iida Ruishalme, "Monoculture: Do intensive farming and GMOs really threaten biodiversity?" https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2017/07/14/monoculture-intensive-farming-gmos-really-threaten-biodiversity/ * Andrew Porterfield, "Why GMOs aren’t responsible for a spike in food allergies" https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2019/06/07/why-gmos-arent-responsible-for-a-spike-in-food-allergies/ * Steven Novella, "Nassim Taleb, The Precautionary Principle, and GMOs" https://theness.com/neurologicablog/index.php/nassim-taleb-the-precautionary-principle-and-gmos/ * Katherine Ellen Foley, "The USDA says CRISP-edited foods safe as ones bred the old-fashioned way" https://qz.com/1242882/the-usda-drops-all-regulation-for-crispr-edited-crops/ * Adam Popescu, “CRISPR-edited ‘super plants’ might be our best chance to slow climate change” https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2019/04/18/crispr-edited-super-plants-might-be-our-best-chance-to-slow-climate-change/ * Emma Sarappo, "The Less People Understand Science, The More Afraid of GMOs They Are: A lack of scientific literacy is correlated with undue fears around genetic modification, chemicals, and common food production techniques." https://psmag.com/news/the-less-people-understand-science-the-more-afraid-of-gmos-they-are . IV. THE SCIENCE BEHIND PESTICIDES & HERBICIDES - AND WHY MOST SKEPTICS THINK THEY'RE NOT ONLY SAFE BUT VERY USEFUL: - IS MOST OF THE POPULAR OPPOSITION TO PESTICIDES DUE TO A COLLECTION OF FALLACIES KNOWN AS "CHEMOPHOBIA"? - ARE PESTICIDE & HERBICIDE RESIDUES ON PRODUCE DANGEROUS, OR CAN THEY EASILY BE REMOVED BY WASHING? - ARE STATS ON PESTICIDE DEATHS OFTEN DISTORTED BY INCLUDING SELF-POISONING SUICIDES IN THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES? - IN GENERAL, IS IT TRUE THAT THE CANCER RISK FROM PESTICIDE & HERBICIDE RESIDUES PALES IN COMPARISON WITH SUBSTANCES WE REGULARLY CONSUME, LIKE ALCOHOL & CAFFEINE? - IS GLYPHOSATE A "PROBABLE CARCINOGEN" AS THE WHO'S IARC MAINTAINS, OR IS IT ACTUALLY ONE OF THE SAFEST HERBICIDES AVAILABLE? - HAS GLYPHOSATE LED TO THE DECLINE OF THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY? IS THIS A DIRECT EFFECT, OR INDIRECT BY KILLING MILKWEED? - ARE NEONICOTINOID PESTICIDES A MAJOR CAUSE OF "COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER" (CCD) IN BEES, OR IS IT MORE DUE TO PARASITES, VIRUSES & HABITAT LOSS? ARE WE ON THE VERGE OF A "BEEPOCALYPSE" THAT WILL CAUSE AGRICULTURE TO COLLAPSE, OR IS THIS MEDIA HYPE? - IS CHLORPYRIFOS RELATED TO WWII-ERA NERVE GAS? IS IT CAUSING BRAIN DAMAGE IN CHILDREN WHO EAT NON-ORGANIC FOOD AS SOME NEWS REPORTS CLAIM, OR ARE ITS HEALTH RISKS LIMITED TO FARM WORKERS? - WAS EPA DIRECTOR SCOTT PRUITT'S RECENT REFUSAL TO BAN CHLORPYRIFOS PROBABLY DUE TO A $1 MILLION DONATION FROM DOW CHEMICAL TO TRUMP'S INAUGURATION FUND? - ARE PESTICIDES NECESSARY TO PROTECT CROPS AS THE CLIMATE WARMS & INSECTS PROLIFERATE? 4a) SciShow, "How Safe Are Pesticides, Really?" (video - 12:15 min.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eF_fbTbHdyg 4b) Freethink, "What Happened to the Beepocalypse?" (video - 4:38 min.) https://youtu.be/DcbpjV1Imkc * Harriet Hall, “Pesticides: Just How Bad Are They?” https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/pesticides-just-how-bad-are-they/ * Andrew Porterfield, "Why regulators conclude glyphosate safe while IARC, alone, claims it could cause cancer?" https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2015/07/24/why-do-regulators-conclude-glyphosate-safe-while-iarc-almost-alone-claims-it-could-cause-cancer/ * Jon Entine, "Do Neonics Hurt Bees? Researchers and the Media Say Yes. The Data Do Not. A new, landmark study provides plenty of useful information. If only we could interpret it accurately." https://slate.com/technology/2017/06/the-data-do-not-support-the-idea-that-neonics-hurt-bees.html * Ed Yong, "The Very Hot, Very Hungry Caterpillar: Climate change will mean more insects, and less food for humans" https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/08/climate-change-insects-crops/568978/ * Tim Barker, "Was the EPA right not to ban the crop pesticide chlorpyrifos?" https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2017/04/05/epa-right-not-ban-crop-pesticide-chlorpyrifos/ * Vanessa Schipani, "The Facts on Chlorpyrifos: Both the EPA and its critics say science is on their side in the debate over whether the agricultural insecticide should be banned." https://www.factcheck.org/2017/04/the-facts-on-chlorpyrifos/ * Alex Kasprak, "Fact Check: Did President Trump Reverse an Insecticide Ban After Receiving $1 Million form Dow Chemical?" [Rating: Mixture] https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/trump-reverses-insecticide-ban-dow-chemicals/ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XX

  • Nerd Nite Philly (Monthly)

    Frankford Hall

    Nerd Nite is a monthly event held in more than 90 cities across the globe, including Philadelphia, typically on the first Wednesday of the month. Several folks give 15 to 20-minute fun-yet-informative presentations, typically about either STEM topics or geek culture (science fiction, comic books, gaming, etc). Think of it as a live version of the Discovery Channel held in a German beer garden. Past presentations have ranged across a wide variety of topics, everything from Bitcoin and breakthroughs in cancer research to the adventures of young Ben Franklin and the science of Star Trek. Sometimes there will be bands, performers, trivia, or other forms of entertainment as well. Getting There: Frankford Hall is in Philly's Fishtown neighborhood, near the corner of Frankford Ave & Girard Street. SEPTA's Girard Station is just a block west, and there's also usually spaces available for street parking in the surrounding neighborhood. If you can't find a spot on the street, there's a paid parking lot called "Park America" a couple blocks away at 1320 N. Front Street. Event Start Time & Seating: Frankford Hall opens at 4:00pm, but the Nerd Nite show doesn't begin until 7:30pm. The length varies, but the show usually wraps up around 9:30-10:00pm. There's a series of long tables just to the right of the main entrance where everyone who's paid their cover can sit. . . Finding Our Group: Keep in mind, I only attend these occasionally. When I can make it, I tend to get to the venue around 7:00-7:15pm since I'm coming from work in King of Prussia. Once I get to Frankford Hall, I typically try to find whichever members got there before me and we grab a table, then I post a comment here on Meetup letting everyone know which table we're sitting at. Sometimes, I can't make it - in those cases, please try to find each other by posting where you're seated in the comments or simply looking for each other. Sometimes, it can be hard to find the group. In those cases, don't be afraid to sit at a table with strangers & introduce yourself - it's the norm at Frankford Hall & I've always found the people that show up for Nerd Nite tend to be friendly & interesting. Entry Fee: There's a $5 cover (charged by the venue, not our meetup). This gets you admission as well as happy hour specials which extend until the show ends. Food & Drink: Frankford Hall has an excellent drink selection, and the prices aren't bad since we get their happy hour special. There's a limited food menu, mostly German stuff like pretzels & sausage, although there's burgers as well. It's good & not too pricy. You order food & pay for it at the counter, and then they give you a number and their servers will deliver it to your table. For more info, see the Nerd Nite Philly webpage: https://philadelphia.nerdnite.com/ Or check out their Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/nerdnitephilly/

  • Biweekly Discussion - Sci-Fi Scenarios & The Skeptic Toolbox

    We're currently hosting our discussions at Café Walnut, near the corner of 7th & Walnut in Olde City, just across the street from Washington Square Park. The cafe's entrance is below street level down some stairs, which can be confusing if it's your first time. Our group meets in the large room upstairs. Since we're using the cafe's space, they ask that each person attending the meetup at least purchase a drink or snack. Please don't bring any food or drinks from outside. If you're hungry enough to eat a meal, they have more substantial fare such as salads, soups & sandwiches which are pretty good and their prices are reasonable. The cafe is fairly easy to get to if you're using public transit. With SEPTA, take the Market-Frankford Line & get off at the 5th Street Station (corner of 5th & Market), and walk 2 blocks south on 5th and then turn right on Walnut Street and walk 2 blocks west. With PATCO, just get off at the 9th-10th & Locust stop and walk 3 blocks east & 1 block north. For those who are driving, parking in the neighborhood can be tough to find. If you can't find a spot on the street, I'd suggest parking in the Washington Square parking deck at 249 S 6th Street which is just a half block away. ---------------------------------------------- SCI-SCENARIOS & THE SKEPTIC TOOLBOX: CAN WEIRD THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS FROM THE RATIONALIST COMMUNITY SHARPEN OUR CRITICAL THINKING? INTRODUCTION: What you're seeing below is a blank discussion outline. If there's no title listed above for this meetup, it probably means I haven't decided on the topic. If there's a title but not much else, it means I've picked a topic but I'm still looking around for articles & videos clips to stimulate discussion. If you see the topic and think it's interesting, please RSVP early since this gives me a general idea of about how many people will be showing up. I typically try to finish up the discussion outline the weekend before a meetup, but sometimes I can't finish it until a couple days before the discussion. Luckily, I only ask that people watch a few video clips prior to attending the meetup and they generally only come to 30-45 minutes total, so even if it takes me until the day prior to finish up the discussion outline you'll still have time to prepare. * So what's up will all the X's below? Meetup's new format gives me a very short character limit that makes long discussion outline impossible. However, I found a way around it - by copying old meetups before the new character limit was introduced. But there's a catch, if all of the blank space isn't filled when I copy the meetup, the new shorter character limit will be applied, so I'm forced to fill up all the available space with X's. I know that sounds kinda ridiculous, but it's the only way I can still write up long, detailed discussion outlines. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ----------------------------------------------- DIRECTIONS ON HOW TO PREPARE FOR OUR DISCUSSION: The videos & articles you see linked below are intended to give you a basic overview of some of the major debates over XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX. As usual, I certainly don't expect you to read all the articles & watch all the videos prior to attending our discussion. The easiest way to prepare for our discussion is to just watch the numbered videos linked under each section - the videos come to about about XX minutes total. The articles marked with asterisks are just there to supply additional details. You can browse and look at whichever ones you want, but don't worry - we'll cover the stuff you missed in our discussion. In terms of the discussion format, my general idea is that we'll address the topics in the order presented here. I figure we'll spend about 30 minutes on each section. ---------------------------------------------- I. SECTION 1 TITLE: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 1, QUESTION 1: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 1, QUESTION 2: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 1, QUESTION 3: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 1, QUESTION 4: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 1, QUESTION 5: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1a) VIDEO 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1b) VIDEO 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 1 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 2 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 3 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX II. SECTION 2 TITLE: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 2, QUESTION 1: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 2, QUESTION 2: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 2, QUESTION 3: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 2, QUESTION 4: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 2, QUESTION 5: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2a) VIDEO 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2b) VIDEO 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 1 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 2 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 3 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX III. SECTION 3 TITLE: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 3, QUESTION 1: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 3, QUESTION 2: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 3, QUESTION 3: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 3, QUESTION 4: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 3, QUESTION 5: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 3a) VIDEO 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 3b) VIDEO 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 1 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 2 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 3 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX IV. SECTION 4 TITLE: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 4, QUESTION 1: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 4, QUESTION 2: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 4, QUESTION 3: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 4, QUESTION 4: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 4, QUESTION 5: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 4a) VIDEO 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 4b) VIDEO 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 1 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 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  • Science on Tap (Monthly)

    National Mechanics

    Science on Tap is a monthly science café in Philadelphia for anyone who is interested in getting together with other people to discuss a range of engaging science topics. It's typically held at National Mechanics, a relaxed bar in Olde City with great food & drinks specials. Each event features a brief, informal presentation by a scientist or other expert followed by some lively conversation. Science on Tap is for people age 21 or older, but folks under 21 can come with parents or a chaperone who is older than 25. Where: National Mechanics, 22 S. 3rd Street, Philadelphia (unless otherwise noted). For those taking public transit, SEPTA's Market-Frankford line has a stop a block and a half away at 2nd & Market. If you're taking PATCO, you'll have to get off at 8th & Market & walk 5 blocks east, then turn south on 3rd. For those driving, street parking in Olde City is hard to find, so I'd recommend parking at one of the paid lots - the closest lot is at 38 S. 2nd Street (between Chestnut & Market). When: Science on Tap is held on the second Monday of every month at 6 pm. Be sure to arrive early to get seats, because if you get there right at 6:00 (as I usually do) it's often standing room only. The talks vary in length, but typically run until 7:30pm. Finding our Group: Our members typically arrive individually and grab a spot to watch the presentation, but once it's over, the place clears out pretty quickly and our group usually finds each other at this point and we grab a table, share some drinks and talk about what we learned. Keep in mind, I only attend these occasionally. When I can't make it, please try to find each other by posting where you're seated in the comments or simply looking for each other. Sometimes, it can be hard to find the group. In those cases, don't be afraid to sit at a table with strangers & introduce yourself - I've always found the people that show up for Science on Tap tend to be friendly & interesting. How Much: No cover -- admission is free! Sponsors: Science on Tap is sponsored by a consortium of five Philadelphia institutions: Drexel University's Academy of Natural Sciences, The American Philosophical Society (APS) Museum, Chemical Heritage Foundation, Mütter Museum of The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, and the Wagner Free Institute of Science. For more info, check the Science on Tap Philly website: https://scienceontapphilly.com/ Or check out their Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/ScienceOnTap/

  • Philly Fringe Fest Event - "Know Thyself" - with Afterparty

    Kismet Cowork Spring Arts

    Event Title: "Know Thyself" Date & Time: Friday, Sept. 13, 2019, 8:30 P.M. Cost: $25.00 ($27.24 w/service fee) To buy tix, go here: https://knowthyself.bpt.me * Note: Tickets go on sale August 1st, 2019. There's only 12 spots, so don't wait to the last minute because tickets are almost guaranteed to sell out ahead of time. About the Presenter: Jessica is an immersive experience and game designer. She is a professor of serious and experimental games at Drexel University and the founder of IKantKoan Play/s. Jessica has worked on Broadway, up mountain trails, and recently gave a TEDx talk on gamifying chaos and embracing uncertainty through play. Her work has been presented at BostonFIG, HERE Arts Center, The Franklin Institute, FringeNYC, and Bandwi/d/th International. She is a 2019 game-designer-in-residence at Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Park and 2020 artist-in-residence at The Arctic Circle Artist & Scientist Residency Program. A lot of her work is centered on transforming abstract science and philosophy into playful, interactive experiences. For instance, she has worked with the National Parks Service on games about climate change, and she has a tabletop game called Schrödinger's Cat that gamifies the quantum physics thought experiment in the form of an infinite, tabletop game. About the Event: "Know Thyself" is a game-based philosophy salon that turns ancient and contemporary philosophies - including skepticism - into a series of social, multi-player games that are designed to dig into how individuals and groups make meaningful decisions for society. Participants will gain a greater sense of their own agency by exploring philosophy through these games, contending with the good, the bad, and the confounding aspects of each decision they make. The event runs roughly 1 hour, after which we'll meet with Jessica for drinks and a Q&A session where we can ask her questions about her ideas behind the event as well as how this applies to broader issues in science & philosophy. About the Fringe Festival Events: Each year, the Fringe Festival brings local, national and international art to Philadelphia with a more than two-week-long extravaganza drawing upwards of 40,000 people. This year’s lineup features more than 100 theater, dance, comedy, visual art and spoken word shows curated by festival organizer FringeArts. The 2018 Fringe Festival sees some of these celebrated Philadelphia acts return with groundbreaking world premieres. * For more information, go to: https://www.ikantkoan.com/know-thyself.html

  • Franklin Institute Speaker: CRISPR & The HIV Virus

    The Franklin Institute

    Event Title: Dr. Kamel Khalili - From Bench to Bedside: New Breakthroughs in CRISPR Gene Editing and the HIV Virus Tickets: FREE - but registration required - go to: https://tickets.fi.edu/webstore/shop/viewItems.aspx?cg=11&c=SpeakerSeries Event Description: A permanent cure for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to remain elusive, though new treatments and even the potential for a complete cure may soon be within our grasp. The Franklin Institute’s Speaker Seriescontinues with a groundbreaking discussion with Dr. Kamel Khalili, Chair of the Department of Neuroscience at Temple University. Khalili and his team of researchers made a major breakthrough earlier this year by demonstrating the use of the CRISPR gene editing technique for the treatment of HIV. Khalili’s team successfully utilized CRISPR proteins to completely shut down and eliminate HIV from infected mice, demonstrating incredible potential for complete eradication of the HIV virus. Dr. Khalili sits down with The Franklin Institute’s chief bioscientist, Dr. Jayatri Das, to discuss the limitations of current treatments for HIV as well as the next steps facing researchers as they aim to take their discovery from bench to bedside—especially in light of a Chinese scientist’s recent controversial application of the CRISPR technique in human babies to address the risk of HIV infection. About the Speaker: Dr. Kamel Khalili is the Laura H. Carnell Professor and Chair in Department of Neuroscience at Temple University. He also serves as director of both the Center for Neurovirology and the Comprehensive NeuroAIDS Center at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University. For more info, check out the Franklin Institute website: mhttps://www.fi.edu/event/2019-09-16/speaker-series-bench-bedside-new-breakthroughs-crispr-gene-editing-and-hiv-virus

  • Biweekly Discussion - Stereotypes, Bias & Profiling

    We're currently hosting our discussions at Café Walnut, near the corner of 7th & Walnut in Olde City, just across the street from Washington Square Park. The cafe's entrance is below street level down some stairs, which can be confusing if it's your first time. Our group meets in the large room upstairs. Since we're using the cafe's space, they ask that each person attending the meetup at least purchase a drink or snack. Please don't bring any food or drinks from outside. If you're hungry enough to eat a meal, they have more substantial fare such as salads, soups & sandwiches which are pretty good and their prices are reasonable. The cafe is fairly easy to get to if you're using public transit. With SEPTA, take the Market-Frankford Line & get off at the 5th Street Station (corner of 5th & Market), and walk 2 blocks south on 5th and then turn right on Walnut Street and walk 2 blocks west. With PATCO, just get off at the 9th-10th & Locust stop and walk 3 blocks east & 1 block north. For those who are driving, parking in the neighborhood can be tough to find. If you can't find a spot on the street, I'd suggest parking in the Washington Square parking deck at 249 S 6th Street which is just a half block away. ---------------------------------------------- WHAT CAN SCIENCE TELL US ABOUT STEREOTYPES, BIAS, BODY LANGUAGE ANALYSIS & CRIMINAL PROFILING? INTRODUCTION: What you're seeing below is a blank discussion outline. If there's no title listed above for this meetup, it probably means I haven't decided on the topic. If there's a title but not much else, it means I've picked a topic but I'm still looking around for articles & videos clips to stimulate discussion. If you see the topic and think it's interesting, please RSVP early since this gives me a general idea of about how many people will be showing up. I typically try to finish up the discussion outline the weekend before a meetup, but sometimes I can't finish it until a couple days before the discussion. Luckily, I only ask that people watch a few video clips prior to attending the meetup and they generally only come to 30-45 minutes total, so even if it takes me until the day prior to finish up the discussion outline you'll still have time to prepare. * So what's up will all the X's below? Meetup's new format gives me a very short character limit that makes long discussion outline impossible. However, I found a way around it - by copying old meetups before the new character limit was introduced. But there's a catch, if all of the blank space isn't filled when I copy the meetup, the new shorter character limit will be applied, so I'm forced to fill up all the available space with X's. I know that sounds kinda ridiculous, but it's the only way I can still write up long, detailed discussion outlines. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ----------------------------------------------- DIRECTIONS ON HOW TO PREPARE FOR OUR DISCUSSION: The videos & articles you see linked below are intended to give you a basic overview of some of the major debates over XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX. As usual, I certainly don't expect you to read all the articles & watch all the videos prior to attending our discussion. The easiest way to prepare for our discussion is to just watch the numbered videos linked under each section - the videos come to about about XX minutes total. The articles marked with asterisks are just there to supply additional details. You can browse and look at whichever ones you want, but don't worry - we'll cover the stuff you missed in our discussion. In terms of the discussion format, my general idea is that we'll address the topics in the order presented here. I figure we'll spend about 30 minutes on each section. ---------------------------------------------- I. SECTION 1 TITLE: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 1, QUESTION 1: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 1, QUESTION 2: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 1, QUESTION 3: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 1, QUESTION 4: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 1, QUESTION 5: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1a) VIDEO 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1b) VIDEO 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 1 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 2 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 3 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX II. SECTION 2 TITLE: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 2, QUESTION 1: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 2, QUESTION 2: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 2, QUESTION 3: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 2, QUESTION 4: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 2, QUESTION 5: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2a) VIDEO 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2b) VIDEO 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 1 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 2 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 3 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX III. SECTION 3 TITLE: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 3, QUESTION 1: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 3, QUESTION 2: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 3, QUESTION 3: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 3, QUESTION 4: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 3, QUESTION 5: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 3a) VIDEO 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 3b) VIDEO 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 1 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 2 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 3 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX IV. SECTION 4 TITLE: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 4, QUESTION 1: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 4, QUESTION 2: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 4, QUESTION 3: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 4, QUESTION 4: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX - SECTION 4, QUESTION 5: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 4a) VIDEO 1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 4b) VIDEO 2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (video - XX:XX min) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 1 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 2 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX * ARTICLE 3 - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 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  • Free Library Author Event: Malcolm Gladwell on "Talking to Strangers"

    Event Title: Malcolm Gladwell, *Talking to Strangers: What We Should Know about the People We Don't Know* Date & Time: Thur, Sept. 26, 2019, 7:30 P.M. Cost: $30, $60 with book * Note: Tickets go on sale September 9, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. About the Author: Malcolm Gladwell is a long-time staff writer for The New Yorker and best known for popularizing various concepts from sociology & psychology in his bestselling books, *The Tipping Point*, *Blink*, *Outliers*, *David and Goliath*, and *What the Dog Saw*. Since 2016, he's hosted the Revisionist History podcast which begins each episode with an inquiry about a person, event, or idea, and proceeds to question the received wisdom about the subject. In his latest book, *Talking to Strangers*, he offers a powerful examination of our interactions with strangers -- and why they often go wrong. Why did Montezuma underestimate the threat posed by Hernan Cortez and his band of conquistadors? Why did Neville Chamberlain think he could appease Adolf Hitler at Munich? How did Fidel Castro fool the CIA for a generation, avoiding all their assassination & coup attempts? Why are campus sexual assaults on the rise? Do television sitcoms teach us something about the way we relate to each other that isn’t true? *Talking to Strangers* is a challenging and controversial excursion through history, psychology, and scandals taken straight from the news. He revisits the deceptions that propped up Bernie Madoff's Ponzi scheme, the media circus surrounding the murder trial of Amanda Knox, the untimely suicide of poet Sylvia Plath, the Jerry Sandusky child molestation scandal at Penn State University, and the routine traffic stop that led to the arrest & death of Sandra Bland in police custody—throwing our understanding of these and other stories into doubt. Something is very wrong, Gladwell argues, with the tools and strategies we use to make sense of people we don’t know. And because we don’t know how to talk to strangers, we are inviting conflict and misunderstanding in ways that have a profound effect on our lives and our world. About the Free Library Author Events: The Author Events program at the Free Library of Philadelphia offers the opportunity to engage in meaningful dialogue with today’s most celebrated voices in the humanities and sciences. While most Author Events are held at Parkway Central Library, this special event will be held at the Irvine Auditorium at 3401 Spruce Street in Philadelphia, and feature a presentation by the author and Q&A with the audience. Books are sold on-site - there will not be a book signing following the event, but each book comes with a signed bookplate. Doors open 45 minutes prior to event start times. * For more information, call the Author Events Office at[masked] or email [masked] or go to: https://libwww.freelibrary.org/programs/authorevents/?id=91049

  • Nerd Nite Philly (Monthly)

    Frankford Hall

    Nerd Nite is a monthly event held in more than 90 cities across the globe, including Philadelphia, typically on the first Wednesday of the month. Several folks give 15 to 20-minute fun-yet-informative presentations, typically about either STEM topics or geek culture (science fiction, comic books, gaming, etc). Think of it as a live version of the Discovery Channel held in a German beer garden. Past presentations have ranged across a wide variety of topics, everything from Bitcoin and breakthroughs in cancer research to the adventures of young Ben Franklin and the science of Star Trek. Sometimes there will be bands, performers, trivia, or other forms of entertainment as well. Getting There: Frankford Hall is in Philly's Fishtown neighborhood, near the corner of Frankford Ave & Girard Street. SEPTA's Girard Station is just a block west, and there's also usually spaces available for street parking in the surrounding neighborhood. If you can't find a spot on the street, there's a paid parking lot called "Park America" a couple blocks away at 1320 N. Front Street. Event Start Time & Seating: Frankford Hall opens at 4:00pm, but the Nerd Nite show doesn't begin until 7:30pm. The length varies, but the show usually wraps up around 9:30-10:00pm. There's a series of long tables just to the right of the main entrance where everyone who's paid their cover can sit. . . Finding Our Group: Keep in mind, I only attend these occasionally. When I can make it, I tend to get to the venue around 7:00-7:15pm since I'm coming from work in King of Prussia. Once I get to Frankford Hall, I typically try to find whichever members got there before me and we grab a table, then I post a comment here on Meetup letting everyone know which table we're sitting at. Sometimes, I can't make it - in those cases, please try to find each other by posting where you're seated in the comments or simply looking for each other. Sometimes, it can be hard to find the group. In those cases, don't be afraid to sit at a table with strangers & introduce yourself - it's the norm at Frankford Hall & I've always found the people that show up for Nerd Nite tend to be friendly & interesting. Entry Fee: There's a $5 cover (charged by the venue, not our meetup). This gets you admission as well as happy hour specials which extend until the show ends. Food & Drink: Frankford Hall has an excellent drink selection, and the prices aren't bad since we get their happy hour special. There's a limited food menu, mostly German stuff like pretzels & sausage, although there's burgers as well. It's good & not too pricy. You order food & pay for it at the counter, and then they give you a number and their servers will deliver it to your table. For more info, see the Nerd Nite Philly webpage: https://philadelphia.nerdnite.com/ Or check out their Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/nerdnitephilly/

  • Biweekly Discussion - Do Bankers Rule the World?

    We're currently hosting our discussions at Café Walnut, near the corner of 7th & Walnut in Olde City, just across the street from Washington Square Park. The cafe's entrance is below street level down some stairs, which can be confusing if it's your first time. Our group meets in the large room upstairs. Since we're using the cafe's space, they ask that each person attending the meetup at least purchase a drink or snack. Please don't bring any food or drinks from outside. If you're hungry enough to eat a meal, they have more substantial fare such as salads, soups & sandwiches which are pretty good and their prices are reasonable. The cafe is fairly easy to get to if you're using public transit. With SEPTA, take the Market-Frankford Line & get off at the 5th Street Station (corner of 5th & Market), and walk 2 blocks south on 5th and then turn right on Walnut Street and walk 2 blocks west. With PATCO, just get off at the 9th-10th & Locust stop and walk 3 blocks east & 1 block north. For those who are driving, parking in the neighborhood can be tough to find. If you can't find a spot on the street, I'd suggest parking in the Washington Square parking deck at 249 S 6th Street which is just a half block away. ---------------------------------------------- DO BANKERS RULE THE WORLD? ASSESSING CONSPIRACY THEORIES ABOUT BANKS & BANKING POLICY INTRODUCTION: This meetup will address arguments commonly found on both the political left & right about the dangers of U.S. banking policies, institutions like the Federal Reserve, and private commercial & investment banking firms. We'll try to sort out the rational critiques of things like irresponsible monetary policy and unethical or illegal banking practices from the irrational conspiracy theories about evil bankers colluding on a massive scale for centuries, controlling all of the world's leaders, and crushing anyone who gets in their way. WHY DOES PSYCHOLOGY HELP US EXPLAIN FINANCIAL CONSPIRACY THEORIES? Before we dive into the topics I've listed in the body of the discussion outline, I wanted to make 7 brief points. (I've provided links beneath several points, but you're under no obligation to read them unless you want to.) 1) Originally, I planned to lead another discussion before this one from 1-3pm on banking policy, but I didn't have time to put together a discussion outline. That means that we're going into this discussion without providing even "Econ 101" type background information on what money & credit are, how interest on loans works, what commercial & investment banks do, etc. We also haven't discussed why most mainstream economists approve of the U.S. having a semi-autonomous central banking system (i.e. the Federal Reserve), issuing fiat currency, allowing fractional reserve banking, etc, or why some heterodox economists disagree with this. We also haven't delved into the details of banking regulations & the relevant laws. Unfortunately, this means that we're going into this discussion of banking conspiracies without a shared understanding of what beneficial & legal banking practices look like and how we can spot harmful & illegal banking practices. We'll just have to do the best we can, but this is something to be aware of. 2) Studies indicate that the average American's financial literacy is quite low. As part of a longitudinal panel study that surveyed a representative sample of about 20,000 Americans, the economist Annamaria Lusardi asked participants 3 basic questions on interest, inflation, and risk diversification and found only 30% could answer all three correctly. This indicates that at least 70% of Americans probably don't have the ability to understand even the simplest issues in personal finance or economics. It's reasonable to assume the average American could be very vulnerable to conspiracy theories which don't require any math skills to comprehend, and yet provide simple black & white narratives that purport to explain everything wrong with our economy in terms of bankers behaving like the supervillains in comic books & James Bond films. * For the 3 questions & more details, see this Freakonomics podcast: http://freakonomics.com/podcast/everything-always-wanted-know-money-afraid-ask/ 3) Psychological studies have found that most people appear to have an instinctual aversion to the idea of businesses making a profit since there's an implicit assumption that we live in a zero-sum world where one person's gain must come at another person's loss. This aversion to profit appears to be especially strong for profit made from lending money at interest which appears to violate instinctual norms of "reciprocal altruism". * For more on this, see Christian Jarrett, "We have an ingrained anti-profit bias that blinds us to the social benefit of free markets" https://digest.bps.org.uk/2017/08/04/we-have-an-ingrained-anti-profit-bias-that-blinds-us-to-the-social-benefits-of-free-markets/ * See also John A. Johnson, "Why Lending With Interest Is Felt to Be Immoral: Repayment with interest might violate an ancient sense of fair exchange." https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/cui-bono/201609/why-lending-interest-is-felt-be-immoral 4) Variations in 3 of the "Big Five" personality traits (i.e. Agreeableness, Neuroticism & Conscientiousness) are associated with variations in economic ideology. The more Agreeable & Neurotic you are, the more likely you are to favor altruistic economic policies & be anxious about economic risks, while the more Conscientious you are the more likely you are to oppose redistribution to people you view as "freeloaders". * For the study on personality traits, see Bert Bakker, "The psychology of scarcity – how personality influences economic ideology" http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsandpolicy/56827-2/ 5) Differences in personality traits probably play a role in the different fears about the banking system people have depending on their economic ideology. At least anecdotally, it appears to me that fiscal conservatives tend to fear Big Government taxing away their hard-earned income & bailing out banks, and they often resent the Federal Reserve for the hidden tax of inflation. Conversely, fiscal liberals tend to fear a dog-eat-dog world where heartless capitalists & "banksters" exploit the less fortunate with impunity, and they favor government intervention to prevent this. My educated guess about partisan differences in resentment of bankers is somewhat supported by a 2016 study that did find a partisan split among people who view the American economy as "rigged". Clinton supporters were slightly more likely to say the economy rigged in favor of the rich, banks & corporations, while Trump supporters were a bit more likely to say it's rigged in favor of politicians. (The big split is on economic racism: Clinton supporters were much more likely to say the economy is rigged in favor of white people, while Trump supporters were much more likely to say it's rigged in favor of minorities.) * For the partisan split on the "rigged economy", see this study: https://www.edisonresearch.com/americans-agree-economy-rigged/ 6) Conspiracy theories about banking can be understood as a subtype of "folk economics", i.e. the intuitive economic beliefs of people with no formal training. A recent study indicates that when laypeople reject the "neoliberal" (i.e. free market) economic view, it tends to be for one of 3 reasons: (1) fear of the "Bad Invisible Hand" (i.e. market failure), (2) fear of "Government malfunction" (i.e. bad policies), or (3) fear of conspiracies. * For more on this, see David Leiser, et al., "The conspiratorial style in lay economic thinking" https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0171238 https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2832354 7) These 3 fears about the free market are similar to the 3 ways of thinking about foreign policy disasters we discussed in our earlier meetup: (1) intelligence failures, (2) policy failures, (3) conspiracies. In that discussion, we discussed how conspiracy theories about foreign policy disasters can typically be sorted into 3 categories: (1) MIHOP - i.e. "made it happen on purpose", (2) LIHOP - "let it happen on purpose", (3) Hoax - it didn't really happen. As we'll see, these explanations of disasters transfer over to the banking & finance world as well. LASTLY, BEFORE WE TACKLE BANKING CONSPIRACIES, WHAT ABOUT THE BROADER ISSUE OF "FINANCIALIZATION"? DO BIG INVESTMENT BANKS EXTRACT MORE PROFITS VIA RENT-SEEKING OR CAUSE MORE ECONOMIC HARM VIA MALINVESTMENT THAN THE BENEFITS WE GET FROM THEIR HELP WITH "CAPITAL ALLOCATION"? In our last discussion on conspiracy theories about globalization, the first section looked at whether the evidence we have on life expectancy & measures of extreme poverty (less than $1.25/day) supports the assertion that globalization has made most people in the developing world better off. The evidence shows it has, even in spite of "debt trap diplomacy", poor conditions in sweatshops, pollution, and the social turmoil caused by urbanization. We could ask a similar question about the overall effect of banks; for example, by looking at the economic effects of the Federal Reserve or the growth of financial sector since the 1980s. Unfortunately, I couldn't find any good studies on this... However, I found a blog post from the economist Arnold Kling noting that economists "have no idea how to measure the value created by the financial sector," and that economists’ analysis of the financial sector is "close to 100 percent mood affiliation" (i.e. partisan bias). http://noahpinionblog.blogspot.com/2013/02/finance-has-always-been-more-profitable.html I also found a NY Times article where one of America's top economists, Greg Mankiw, disputed the claim that the economy is rigged: "To say that the economy is rigged... assumes that some small group of oligarchs planned this outcome. Clearly, the wealthy and powerful try to protect their interests, and they sometimes succeed. But the economy is a complex, decentralized system. Many outcomes are under no one’s control. Technological change, for instance, is an emergent process reflecting the decisions of thousands of engineers and entrepreneurs. Growth slows when the pace of innovation falls below historical norms. Inequality rises when the innovations that do occur are used by skilled workers and replace unskilled workers. Such skill-biased technological change, as economists call it, is widely considered a leading cause of the increasing inequality the United States has experienced in recent decades." https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/08/upshot/the-economy-is-rigged-and-other-presidential-campaign-myths.html Over at the University of Chicago's IGM Experts Panel, there's a poll of some of America's top economists that disputed the claim that the rise in wealth inequality in the US since the 1970s is primarily due to the gap between the after-tax return on capital and the economic growth rate. When returns on capital investment (r) rise faster than economic growth (g), that's often an indication that capitalists are extracting wealth from the economy - i.e. taking a "bigger slice" of the economic "pie" as opposed to "baking a bigger pie". It appears most mainstream economists don't think that's happening, at least not on a big enough scale to explain the wealth inequality we see today. http://www.igmchicago.org/surveys/piketty-on-inequality The economist associated with the "r>g" explanation of wealth inequality - Thomas Piketty - countered that he doesn't hold this view either. He countered that he actually thinks the major drivers of wage inequality are unequal access to job skills & higher education and a huge rise in top managerial compensation. (These 2 explanations are supported by the majority of the IGM Experts Panel.) http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2014/10/no-mainstream-economists-did-not-just-reject-thomas-pikettys-big-theory.html To those who think that "financialization" is a relatively recent problem, I found a blog post where the economist Noah Smith points out that while finance basically doubled both its GDP share and its profit share since the big deregulation of the early 1980s, the financial sector hasn't just captured an outsized share of profits since 1980; it has done so all the way back to World War 2. He conjectures this is due to socialization of risk and economies of scale: http://noahpinionblog.blogspot.com/2013/02/finance-has-always-been-more-profitable.html I realize this material on financialization is pretty technical and doesn't yield any easy answers, but I just wanted you to be aware of how economists think about the "big picture" before we dive into the details of various conspiracy theories. ----------------------------------------------- DIRECTIONS ON HOW TO PREPARE FOR OUR DISCUSSION: The videos & articles you see linked below are intended to give you a basic overview of some of the major debates over banking and conspiracy theories. As usual, I certainly don't expect you to read all the articles & watch all the videos prior to attending our discussion. The easiest way to prepare for our discussion is to just watch the numbered videos linked under each section - the videos come to about 50 minutes total. The articles marked with asterisks are just there to supply additional details. You can browse and look at whichever ones you want, but don't worry - we'll cover the stuff you missed in our discussion. In terms of the discussion format, my general idea is that we'll address the topics in the order presented here. I figure we'll spend about 30 minutes on each section. ----------------------------------------------- I. THE ROTHSCHILDS, THE JEWISH BANKER STEREOTYPE & ALLEGATIONS OF WAR PROFITEERING: - DO WE HAVE ANY EVIDENCE THAT NATHAN ROTHSCHILD REALLY SAID THAT HE DIDN'T CARE WHAT "PUPPET" WAS ON THE THRONE OF ENGLAND AS LONG AS HE CONTROLLED THE MONEY SUPPLY, AND THAT THE BEST TIME TO BUY IS WHEN THERE IS "BLOOD IN THE STREETS"? - WHAT'S THE EVIDENCE THAT THE ROTHSCHILDS PROFITED ON THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE FROM EARLY NEWS ABOUT THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO? - WHAT'S THE EVIDENCE THAT ALEXANDER HAMILTON ACTED AS AN AGENT OF THE ROTHSCHILDS TO SET UP THE FIRST BANK OF THE UNITED STATES? - WAS THE FIRST BANK OF THE U.S. DOMINATED BY FOREIGN INVESTORS, INCLUDING THE ROTHSCHILDS? - COULD THE ROTHSCHILDS HAVE PERSUADED THE KING OF ENGLAND TO ATTACK THE U.S., PRECIPITATING THE WAR OF 1812, BECAUSE THE U.S. DIDN'T RENEW THE FIRST BANK'S CHARTER IN 1811? - DID THE ROTHSCHILDS HAVE A STAKE IN ANY OF THE U.S. BANKS THAT FORMED THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM IN 1913? - HOW DID WWII AFFECT THE ROTHSCHILD BANKS, AND IS THERE ANY TRUTH TO THE CLAIM THEY FUNDED THE NAZIS? - HOW DID THE CREATION OF CENTRAL BANKS & INTRODUCTION OF NATIONAL TAXATION SYSTEMS AFFECT THE ROTHSCHILD'S FORTUNES? - IS THE ROTHSCHILD FAMILY'S MONEY TOO DISPERSED AMONG DISTANT FAMILY MEMBERS TO MAKE THEM A MAJOR POLITICAL FORCE TODAY? - EVEN IF IT'S CRAZY TO SUGGEST THAT THE ROTHSCHILDS "CONTROL THE WEATHER", SHOULD WE BE SUSPICIOUS OF THEIR PURCHASE OF THE WEATHER CHANNEL? IS THE "RESILIENT CITIES" AN ELITE SCHEME TO PROFIT OFF CLIMATE ALARMISM? 1) Brian Dunning, "Deconstructing the Rothschild Conspiracy" (video - 14:40 min.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c21Z_tZe0-0 * Brian Cathcart, "The Rothschild Libel: Why has it taken 200 years for an anti-Semitic slur that emerged from the Battle of Waterloo to be dismissed?" https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/the-rothschild-libel-why-has-it-taken-200-years-for-an-anti-semitic-slur-that-emerged-from-the-10216101.html * Lucas Kawa, "The Story Behind The Most Insidious Rothschild Dynasty Conspiracy Theory [About the War of 1812]" https://www.businessinsider.com/rothschild-family-war-of-1812-conspiracy-2013-1 * Thomas DeMichele, "Baron Rothschild Made a Fortune on Waterloo and Said 'the Blood on the Streets' Quote" [Rating: Myth] http://factmyth.com/factoids/baron-rothschild-made-a-fortune-on-waterloo-and-said-the-blood-on-the-streets-quote/ * Robert Philpot, "The Rothschilds, the banks and antisemitism - the truth and the myths. In reality, the Rothschild banks are not – as has been repeatedly alleged – members of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (the biggest of the Fed’s 12 banks) and nor do those banks which are members 'control' the Fed itself. " https://www.thejc.com/news/news-features/the-rothschilds-the-banks-and-antisemitism-the-truth-and-the-myths-1.450112 * Dan Evon, "Rothschild Family Wealth: The Rothschild family is rich, but claims that they have a net worth of $500 trillion and own 80% of the world's wealth are grossly exaggerated." https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/rothschild-family-wealth/ * Wikipedia, "Rothchild banking family of Naples - Closure of the Naples branch [in 1863]" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rothschild_banking_family_of_Naples#Closure_of_the_Naples_branch * Wikipedia, "Rothchild banking family of France - Decline and rise of economic powers" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rothschild_banking_family_of_France#Decline_and_rise_of_economic_power * Brentin Mcok, "Resilience Trutherism, Explained" https://www.citylab.com/environment/2018/03/resilience-trutherism-and-climate-manipulation-explained/555944/ II. J.P. MORGAN, THE "MONEY TRUST" & CONSPIRACY THEORIES: - WAS J.P. MORGAN A "FRONT MAN" FOR THE ROTHSCHILDS IN AMERICA? - DID J.P. MORGAN FUND NIKOLA TESLA'S WARDENCLYFFE TOWER, ONLY TO DENY ADDITIONAL FUNDS IN 1903 WHEN HE FEARED THAT IT WOULD PROVIDE "FREE ENERGY" & UNDERMINE THE MARKET FOR ELECTRICITY? - IS THERE ANY EVIDENCE THAT J.P. MORGAN ORCHESTRATED THE PANIC OF 1907 BY SPREADING RUMORS & CALLING IN LOANS FROM SMALLER BANKS? - DID THE THREE WEALTHY BANKERS THAT DIED ON THE TITANIC (BENJAMIN GUGGENHEIM, ISIDOR STRAUSS, JOHN JACOB ASTOR IV) OPPOSE THE CREATION OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE? IF SO, WHAT'S THE EVIDENCE TO SUGGEST THAT J.P. MORGAN MIGHT HAVE HAD THE TITANIC SABOTAGED TO KILL THEM OFF, OTHER THAN THE FACT THAT HE CANCELLED HIS RESERVATION & OWNED A SIGNIFICANT SHARE IN THE TITANIC'S PARENT COMPANY? - EVEN IF J.P. MORGAN'S "MONEY TRUST" HELPED THE U.S. RAPIDLY INDUSTRIALIZE IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY, WERE THE INDUSTRIAL MONOPOLIES THEY ENABLED BAD FOR AMERICAN WORKERS & CONSUMERS? - DID J.P. MORGAN'S REPRESENTATIVES WHO SERVED ON THE BOARDS OF VARIOUS CORPORATIONS HE'D INVESTED IN IMPOSE AN UNWARRANTED TAX OR DID THEY ADD TO SHAREHOLDER VALUE BY ENSURING LONG-TERM PROFITABILITY BY REPLACING INEPT CEOs? 2a) SOLA, "The Panic of 1907" (video - 4:42 min, start at 1:23) https://youtu.be/2sIVH4wkGVg?t=83 2b) Brian Dunning, "Titanic Myths" (video - 14:40 min, listen from 6:27 to 10:30) https://skeptoid.com/episodes/4615 * Donald P. Morgan & James Narron, "Final Crisis Chronicle: The Panic of 1907 and the Birth of the Fed" https://ritholtz.com/2016/11/final-crisis-chronicle-panic-1907-birth-fed/ * Erick Trickey, "Fact-checking QAnon conspiracy theories: Did J.P. Morgan sink the Titanic?" https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/retropolis/wp/2018/08/04/how-j-p-morgan-didnt-sink-the-titanic-and-other-qanon-conspiracy-theories-debunked/ * David Jerale, "Did Nikola Tesla create free energy? Myths and Rumors persist in the tale of legendary inventor Nikola Tesla" https://thelibertarianrepublic.com/evil-capitalists-prevent-nikola-tesla-creating-free-energy/ * Wikipedia, "Money Trust" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Money_trust * J. Bradford Delong, "Did Morgan's Men Add Value? An Economist's Perspective on Financial Capitalism" https://www.nber.org/papers/w3426 III. "GOLDBUGS", FEARS OF HYPER-FLATION & GOLD CONFISCATION, CONSPIRACY THEORIES ABOUT U.S. & CHINA'S GOLD RESERVES: - DID THE GOLD STANDARD MAKE THE GREAT DEPRESSION WORSE BY LIMITING THE GOVERNMENT'S ABILITY TO EMPLOY FISCAL STIMULUS? - HAS LEAVING THE GOLD STANDARD MADE MOST AMERICANS WORSE OFF DUE TO INFLATION, OR IS THIS OFFSET BY ECONOMIC GROWTH THAT'S LED TO A RISE IN WAGES & LOWER PRICES? - IS INVESTING IN GOLD INHERENTLY PESSIMISTIC COMPARED TO INVESTING IN STOCK OR BONDS? IF SO, DOES THAT MAKE IT IRRATIONAL, OR IS IT A GOOD HEDGE AGAINST INFLATION OR A DOLLAR CRASH? - WHAT'S THE EVIDENCE THAT THE U.S. GOVERNMENT IS LYING ABOUT THE AMOUNT OF GOLD IN FORT KNOX? WHY WOULD IT DO SO SINCE THE DOLLAR IS NOT LONGER BACKED BY GOLD? - COULD CHINA LAUNCH A GOLD-BACKED CURRENCY THAT COULD DISPLACE THE DOLLAR AS THE WORLD RESERVE CURRENCY IF IT ACCUMULATED ENOUGH GOLD IN ITS RESERVES? - DOES THE FACT THAT THE U.S. IS OFF THE GOLD STANDARD MEAN THAT THE GOVERNMENT IS LESS LIKELY TO CONFISCATE AMERICAN'S PRIVATE GOLD COLLECTIONS AS FDR DID IN 1933? 3a) Scott Sumner & Larry White, "Econ Duel: Fiat Money vs. the Gold Standard" (video - 9:58 min.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FbDZ0ObRXfE 3b) Future Money Trends, "Gold Conspiracies Explained" (video - 6:00 min.) https://youtu.be/ZTlVJPl_k_8 * Rationalwiki, "Gold Standard" https://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Gold_standard_(economics) * Barry Ritholtz, "12 Rules of Goldbuggery" https://ritholtz.com/2013/04/the-10-rules-of-goldbuggery/ * Joe Wesienthal, "Here's Why Gold Bugs Are Such Thin-Skinned Misanthropes Who Are Constantly Lashing Out At Critics" https://www.businessinsider.com/heres-why-gold-bugs-are-such-angry-people-that-are-always-constantly-freaking-out-at-critics-2012-2 * Christopher Barker, "The 5 Biggest Myths About Gold: Examining the precious metal through a skeptic's lens." https://www.fool.com/investing/general/2009/06/09/the-5-biggest-myths-about-gold.aspx * Unpops Staff, "Is There Still Gold At Fort Knox?" https://unpops.com/still-gold-fort-knox * Kim Iskyan, "This is the real reason China is buying gold (hint: it’s not so exciting)" https://stansberrychurchouse.com/china/this-is-the-real-reason-china-is-buying-gold-hint-its-not-so-exciting/ * Olav Dirkmaat, "Do Not Worry about Gold Confiscation." https://www.goldrepublic.com/news/gold-confiscation IV. GOLDMAN SACHS AS A "VAMPIRE SQUID" THAT RIGS THE STOCK & BOND MARKETS, A "BUBBLE MACHINE" THAT ENGINEERED THE CRASHES OF 1929, 2000 & 2008, AND CONTROLS U.S. BANKING POLICY VIA EX-EMPLOYEES IN GOVERNMENT (A.K.A. "GOVERNMENT SACHS"): - DID THE "INVESTMENT TRUSTS" (MUTUAL FUNDS) GOLDMAN SACHS SOLD IN THE 1920s PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE IN THE SPECULATIVE BUBBLE THAT PRECEDED THE GREAT DEPRESSION? - DID GOLDMAN SACHS PLAY A MAJOR PART IN THE TECH STOCK BUBBLE THAT BURST IN 2000? - DID GOLDMAN SACHS PLAY A MAJOR PART IN THE HOUSING BUBBLE VIA MORTGAGE-BACKED "COLLATERALIZED DEBT OBLIGATIONS" (CDOs) THAT PRECIPITATED THE 2008 FINANCIAL CRISIS? - DID GOLDMAN SACHS BET AGAINST THEIR OWN CLIENTS WHO BOUGHT MORTGAGE-BACKED CDOs USING "CREDIT-DEFAULT SWAPS" (CDSs)? IF SO, IS THAT ILLEGAL, MERELY UNETHICAL, OR A VALID FORM OF RISK MANAGEMENT? - DID GOLDMAN'S LLOYD BLANKFEIN PULL STRINGS WITH HENRY PAULSON AT THE US TREASURY TO GET AIG BAILED OUT? - WERE SPIKES IN THE PRICE OF GAS ($4/GAL) IN 2008 & 2012 CAUSED BY GOLDMAN SACHS SPECULATING IN OIL FUTURES? - IF GOLDMAN SACHS' COMPETITORS ON WALL STREET HAVE ALSO PLAYED AN EQUAL OR GREATER ROLE IN DRIVING SPECULATIVE BUBBLES & ENGAGED IN UNETHICAL & OCCASIONALLY ILLEGAL BUSINESS PRACTICES, DOES THAT MEAN ALL OF WALL STREET IS EFFECTIVELY A CONSPIRACY TO RIP OFF AMERICA? 4a) Malcolm Fleschner, "Is Goldman Sachs Evil?" (video - 9:17 min.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fWNqTVfrh6Q 4b) Matt Taibbi vs Megan McArdle, "Too Big To Jail?" (video - 8:40 min) https://youtu.be/_E7DWp1n28A * Matt Taibbi, "The Great American Bubble Machine: From tech stocks to high gas prices, Goldman Sachs has engineered every major market manipulation since the Great Depression — and they’re about to do it again" https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/the-great-american-bubble-machine-195229/ * Megan McArdle, "Matt Taibbi Gets His Sarah Palin On" https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2009/07/matt-taibbi-gets-his-sarah-palin-on/21085/ * Heidi N. Moore, "Matt Taibbi Is just plain wrong about Goldman Sachs" http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/2009/08/07/matt-taibbi-is-just-plain-wrong-about-goldman-sachs/ * Charles Gasparino, "Stop Blaming Goldman Sachs" https://www.thedailybeast.com/stop-blaming-goldman-sachs * Daniel Indiviglio, "Is Goldman Sachs the Root of All Evil? Parsing Matt Taibbi." https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2009/06/is-goldman-sachs-the-root-of-all-evil/20210/ * Seth Freedman, "Goldman Sachs is not an evil bank. Blaming banks for the financial crisis is unfair. They are a symptom, not the cause, of a disease that made greed good." https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/apr/21/goldman-sachs-banks-financial-crisis * Malcolm L. Salter, "The AIG Bailout Revisited: Calculated Corruption or Miscalculated Risk Management?" https://ethics.harvard.edu/blog/aig-bailout-revisited * Becky Bowers, "AIG says it has repaid the government, plus profit. [Rating: Mostly True]" https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2013/jan/02/american-international-group/aig-says-it-has-repaid-government-plus-profit/ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 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