Biweekly Discussion - How Well Can We "Read" People?

Skeptics In The Pub - Philly
Skeptics In The Pub - Philly
Public group

Cafe Walnut

703 Walnut Street · Philadelphia, PA

How to find us

The entrance is below street level. Once you walk in, go up the stairs on the left & look for the big group.

Location image of event venue

Details

We're currently hosting our discussions at Café Walnut, near the corner of 7th & Walnut in Olde City, just across the street from Washington Square Park. The cafe's entrance is below street level down some stairs, which can be confusing if it's your first time. Our group meets in the large room upstairs.

Since we're using the cafe's space, they ask that each person attending the meetup at least purchase a drink or snack. Please don't bring any food or drinks from outside. If you're hungry enough to eat a meal, they have more substantial fare such as salads, soups & sandwiches which are pretty good and their prices are reasonable.

The cafe is fairly easy to get to if you're using public transit. With SEPTA, take the Market-Frankford Line & get off at the 5th Street Station (corner of 5th & Market), and walk 2 blocks south on 5th and then turn right on Walnut Street and walk 2 blocks west. With PATCO, just get off at the 9th-10th & Locust stop and walk 3 blocks east & 1 block north. For those who are driving, parking in the neighborhood can be tough to find. If you can't find a spot on the street, I'd suggest parking in the Washington Square parking deck at 249 S 6th Street which is just a half block away.

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HOW WELL CAN WE "READ" OTHER PEOPLE?

THE SCIENCE & PSEUDOSCIENCE BEHIND SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE, JOB INTERVIEWS, DATING, AND CRIMINAL PROFILING

INTRODUCTION:

As some of you probably know, Malcolm Gladwell is speaking at the Free Library on Thursday, Sept. 26th, to promote his new book, *Talking to Strangers: What We Should Know about the People We Don't Know*. If you're interested in attending, you can RSVP here:
https://www.meetup.com/Philly-Skeptics/events/263298254/

I debated listing this event on our Skeptic meetup since the factual accuracy of Malcolm Gladwell's works have been criticized by several prominent members of the skeptic & scientific communities - notably Steven Pinker, John Horgan & Christopher Chabris - who have faulted him for not understanding the social science he was reporting and distoring the research to make it seem more compelling for his narrative.

That said, I decided to list Gladwell's talk and scheduled this meetup for the prior Sunday so we could try to ensure our members have a basic grasp of the research in psychology & sociology on how we "read" other people. This topic dovetails well with the perennial skeptic debunking of self-proclaimed "psychics" & "mentalists" who typically use a mix of "cold reading" techniques and the "Forer effect" to make people think they possess a mystical form of insight that allows them to read minds.

* NOTE: Even though we won't discuss the cold reading techniques that psychics often use, it may help to be familiar with them. If you've never learned about this, I suggest you check out Robert Novella's short article on cold reading:
https://theness.com/index.php/cold-reading-the-psychics-true-power/

This discussion will focus on several permutations of a central question: Once we've eliminated the dubious forms of "mind reading" based on paranormal abilities like ESP & fortune-telling, what are we left with in terms of scientifically explaining how people are able to interpret each other's words & actions and infer their mental state & motives?

RELEVANT MATERIAL FROM PAST MEETUPS:

We've had a few past meetups where we discussed issues that have some overlap with what we'll cover in this session:

Back in December of 2018, we had a meetup entitled "A Skeptic Take on the Kavanaugh Hearings" and in the 2nd section we looked at why many major figures in the Skeptic community consider lie detection & body language analysis as being highly inaccurate & close to pseudo-sciences.
https://www.meetup.com/Philly-Skeptics/events/lckqkqyxqbdb/

In May of 2018, the Philly Political Agnostics had a meetup entitled "Does America Offer Equal Opportunity?" and in Section 3 they looked at the research on hiring biases as they pertain to age, race & gender:
https://www.meetup.com/Philadelphia-Political-Agnostics/events/xvbrznyxgbtb/

Back in July of 2017, the Philly Political Agnostics had a meetup entitled "The Economics of Sex" and in Sections 3, 4 & 5 they looked at the role of physical beauty, age, socio-economic status & race in the dating & marriage markets:
https://www.meetup.com/Philadelphia-Political-Agnostics/events/wxsktmywkbmb/

Back in April of 2018, we had a meetup entitled "Racial Bias in Police Use of Force" where we discussed the difficulties in getting accurate statistics on police shootings, the take-aways & limitations of Roland Fryer's study of racial bias in police shootings, and whether or not controlling for (e.g. income, neighborhood, type of stop, prior record) in research on police use of force hide systemic racism:
https://www.meetup.com/Philly-Skeptics/events/249125196/

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DIRECTIONS ON HOW TO PREPARE FOR OUR DISCUSSION:

The videos & articles you see linked below are intended to give you a basic overview of some of the major debates over our ability to "read" people and determine their motives in various situations. As usual, I certainly don't expect you to read all the articles & watch all the videos prior to attending our discussion. The easiest way to prepare for our discussion is to just watch the numbered videos linked under each section - the videos come to about about 38 minutes total. The articles marked with asterisks are just there to supply additional details. You can browse and look at whichever ones you want, but don't worry - we'll cover the stuff you missed in our discussion.

In terms of the discussion format, my general idea is that we'll address the topics in the order presented here. As you can see, I've listed some questions under each section heading to stimulate discussion. We'll do our best to address most of them during the course of our discussion. I figure we'll spend about 30 minutes on each section.

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I. THE SCIENCE BEHIND SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE, STEREOTYPES & EMPATHY:

- WHAT IS "THEORY OF MIND" & HOW DOES THE "FALSE BELIEF TEST" UNCOVER IT IN YOUNG CHILDREN? IS IT TRUE THAT LEARNING TO LIE BEFORE OTHER CHILDREN (~AGE 4-5) IS A SIGN OF HIGHER IQ?

- HOW DO AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS INTERFERE WITH DEVELOPING THEORY OF MIND & CAUSE "MIND-BLINDNESS"? DOES IT ALSO CAUSE A DEFICIT IN EMPATHY?

- ARE MIRROR NEURONS INVOLVED IN THEORY OF MIND & EMPATHY, OR ARE THEY MERELY INVOLVED IN LEARNING MOTOR PATTERNS BY WATCHING OTHERS?

- WHAT IS "SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE" & HOW CAN WE MEASURE IT? IS IT DISTINCT FROM PERSONALITY TRAITS LIKE EMPATHY & AGREEABLENESS?

- TO WHAT EXTENT CAN WE INFER PEOPLE'S THOUGHTS FROM THEIR FACIAL EXPRESSIONS & BODY LANGUAGE? CAN THIS ALLOW LIE DETECTION THAT SURPASSES MERE CHANCE GUESSING, OR DO MANNERISM VARY TOO MUCH TO PINPOINT COMMON SIGNS OF LYING?

- ARE HUMANS PRONE TO FALSELY ATTRIBUTING BAD BEHAVIOR TO A PERSON'S INATE CHARACTER INSTEAD OF THE SITUATION THEY'RE IN - I.E. THE "FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR" - OR DOES BAD BEHAVIOR REVEAL CHARACTER IN A RELATIVELY RELIABLE MANNER?

- IS THE "IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST" A GOOD WAY OF DISCOVERING UNCONSCIOUS IMPLICIT BIASES? DOES IT PREDICT REAL-WORLD DISCRIMINATORY BEHAVIOR?

- ARE MOST COMMON STEREOTYPES STATISTICALLY INACCURATE, OR ARE THEY LOOSELY BASED IN FACT AS SOCIOLOGIST LEE JUSSIM ARGUES?

- DO IMPLICIT BIASES & STEREOTYPES ALWAYS COLOR HOW WE SEE SOMEONE, OR DO MOST PEOPLE ABANDON STEREOTYPES & UPDATE THEIR VIEW OF A SPECIFIC PERSON AS THEY GET TO KNOW THEM?

1a) Robert Seyfarth, "Theory of Mind" (video - 3:36 min.)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XDtjLSa50uk

1b) SciShow Psych, "Why We're Bad at Guessing Other People's Motives" (video - 4:48 min.)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92x1blW23x4

1c) SciShow Psych, "Can You Really Tell if Someone is Lying to You?" (video - 5:39 min.)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-2YQ4ikV1M

* Paul Harris, "How Do You Measure People Skills? The elusive landscape of social intelligence."
https://slate.com/culture/2006/11/daniel-goleman-s-social-intelligence.html

* Robert A. Burton, "The theory of mind myth: Even experts can’t predict violence or suicide. Surely we’re kidding ourselves that we can see inside the minds of others"
https://aeon.co/essays/think-you-can-tell-what-others-are-thinking-think-again

* Harriet Hall, "Mirror Neurons and the Pitfalls of Brain Research"
https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/mirror-neurons-and-the-pitfalls-of-brain-research/

* Joe Navarro, "Body Language vs. Micro-Expressions: Debunking the myths of 'micro-expressions'"
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/spycatcher/201112/body-language-vs-micro-expressions

* Steven Novella, "Lie Detection"
https://theness.com/neurologicablog/index.php/lie-detection/

* Bryan Caplan, "The Not-So Fundamental Attribution Error"
https://www.econlib.org/archives/2009/06/the_not-so_fund.html

* Lawrence T. White, "Is Implicit Bias a Useful Scientific Concept? Measures of unconscious bias have a limited ability to predict actual behavior."
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/culture-conscious/201706/is-implicit-bias-useful-scientific-concept

* Lee Jussim, "Truth in stereotypes: Social scientists dismiss them, but rather than being universally inaccurate, stereotypes are often grounded in reality"
https://aeon.co/essays/truth-lies-and-stereotypes-when-scientists-ignore-evidence

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II. THE SCIENCE BEHIND JOB INTERVIEWS & PRE-EMPLOYMENT TESTING:

- DO JOB INTERVIEWS HELP PREDICT A PERSON'S COMPETENCE AT A PARTICULAR JOB IN A WAY THAT MERELY LOOKING AT THEIR EDUCATION & GPA, JOB HISTORY & REFERENCES DON'T CAPTURE? OR DOES IT TEND TO LEAVE THE INTERVIEWER OPEN TO BEING POSITIVELY OR NEGATIVELY SWAYED BY THE PERSON'S SUPERFICIAL CHARM OR AWKWARDNESS?

- HOW DO BIASES (RACIAL/ETHNIC, GENDER, CLASS, AGE, ATTRACTIVENESS, ETC.) AFFECT WHO GETS CALLED IN FOR INTERVIEWS BASED ON THEIR RESUME? CAN THIS BE AVOIDED BY AVOIDING IDENTIFYING CLUES ON RESUMES, A.K.A. "BLIND HIRING"?

- DO IN-PERSON INTERVIEWS INEVITABLY INJECT MORE BIASES INTO THE HIRING PROCESS, OR ARE THERE WAYS TO COUNTER THIS?

- CAN PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTEGRITY TESTS (E.G. REID REPORT) PREDICT WHICH EMPLOYEES WILL BE MORE LIKELY TO SCORE WORSE ON PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS, CALL IN SICK, HARASS COWORKERS, STEAL, ETC.? IF SO, DO THEY DO THIS BY GETTING PEOPLE TO OPENLY ADMIT THEIR NEGATIVE TENDENCIES, OR BY TRICKING PEOPLE INTO PRETENDING TO BE UNREALISTICALLY ETHICAL, OR BY DETECTING THEIR CYNICISM ABOUT OTHER PEOPLE'S ETHICS (WHICH SUGGESTS THEY THINK HIGH MORAL STANDARDS ARE UNCOMMON & THUS NOT BINDING ON THEM)?

- CAN PRE-EMPLOYMENT PERSONALITY TESTS (E.G. MYERS-BRIGGS, FIVE FACTOR) PREDICT WHICH EMPLOYEES WILL DO BETTER IN CUSTOMER SERVICES JOBS WHERE EXTRAVERSION, OPENNESS & AGREEABLENESS MAY BE MORE IMPORTANT?

2a) Shire Professional, "Unconscious bias in recruiting" (video - 4:03 min.)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0ne13lv8hE

2b) CBS w/ Eliza Gray, "Your next job may depend on passing personality test" (video - 3:23 min.)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQUQw4WR-7k

* Jesse Singal, "Job Interviews Are Way Less Useful Than Everyone Thinks"
https://www.thecut.com/2017/04/job-interviews-are-way-less-helpful-than-everyone-thinks.html

* Jason Dana, "The Utter Uselessness of Job Interviews"
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/08/opinion/sunday/the-utter-uselessness-of-job-interviews.html

* Diana Kwon, "'We can make a lot of mistakes': The science of job interviews"
https://qz.com/666204/we-can-make-a-lot-of-mistakes-the-science-of-job-interviews/

* Thomas Chamorro-Premuzic, "It’s Time To Start Conducting More Scientific Job Interviews: If hiring managers really want to be fairer and less biased, says one psychologist, they’ll need to cut the chitchat."
https://www.fastcompany.com/3066424/its-time-to-start-conducting-more-scientific-job-interviews

* Paul Petrone, "Science: We Are Terrible at Interviewing. Here’s How to Fix It."
https://business.linkedin.com/talent-solutions/blog/2015/04/science-we-are-terrible-at-interviewing-heres-how-to-fix-it

* German Lopez, "Study: anti-black hiring discrimination is as prevalent today as it was in 1989"
https://www.vox.com/identities/2017/9/18/16307782/study-racism-jobs

* Adrian Furnham, "Can you really test someone for integrity?"
https://fortune.com/2015/08/11/hiring-integrity-test/

* Tim Beardsley, "Mind reader: do personality tests pick out bad apples?"
http://www.skepticfiles.org/cowtext/comput~1/perstest.htm

* Michael Harris, "The Cult of Personality: Rethinking the Use of Personality Tests for Hiring"
https://www.ere.net/the-cult-of-personality-rethinking-the-use-of-personality-tests-for-hiring/

* Angus Chen, "How Accurate Are Personality Tests? Precious few personality assessments are known to be reliable, and researchers say their use outside academia is debatable"
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-accurate-are-personality-tests/

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III. THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE DEBATE OVER ONLINE DATING SITES VS IN-PERSON DATING:

- ARE ONLINE DATING SITES MOSTLY USELESS BECAUSE PEOPLE OFTEN LIE ABOUT PERSONAL DETAILS & THE PICTURES PEOPLE USE MAKE THEM LOOK MORE ATTRACTIVE THAN THEY REALLY ARE? OR DO THESE SITES PROVIDE A USEFUL SCREENING TACTIC THAT HELPS WEED OUT PEOPLE WHO CAN'T COMPOSE WITTY MESSAGES?

- CAN THE QUESTIONS THAT SOME ONLINE DATING SITES LIKE EHARMONY, MATCH & OKCUPID USE PREDICT THE ROMANTIC COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN TWO PEOPLE BASED ON THEIR SHARED INTERESTS & COMMON VALUES?

- IS "LOVE AT FIRST SIGHT" A REAL PHENOMENA - I.E. CAN PEOPLE QUICKLY PREDICT THEIR ROMANTIC COMPATIBILITY WITH SOMEONE EVEN WITHOUT TALKING TO THEM, OR CAN THEY ONLY DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT THEY FIND THEM PHYSICALLY ATTRACTIVE?

- TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THE ROLE OF SMELL PLAY IN HUMAN ATTRACTION, AND IS IT TRUE THAT PHEROMONES PLAY A ROLE?

- CAN THE SHORT CONVERSATIONS (2-4 MIN.) USED IN SPEED DATING ALLOW MOST PEOPLE TO DETERMINE THEIR POTENTIAL ROMANTIC COMPATIBILITY WITH SOMEONE, OR ARE LONGER CONVERSATIONS & FUN ACTIVITIES USUALLY NEEDED TO GAUGE THIS?

- ARE WOMEN USUALLY BETTER AT DETERMINING ROMANTIC COMPATIBILITY THROUGH CONVERSATION THAN MEN? IF SO, WHY?

3a) Marty Hazleton, "Science of Sex - Evolutionary Analysis of Speed Dating" (video - 2:39 min.)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bH72e3XhseE

3b) Adam Conover, "Why Dating Sites Aren’t Scientific At All" (video - 2:25 min.)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=brrdn3OLODE

* Sander van der Linden, "Science of Speed Dating Helps Singles Find Love: Speed dating and other innovations in matchmaking can confound even the most focused dater, but simple tips can help"
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/shopping-for-love/

* Alice LaPlante, "The Four-Minute Search for the Perfect Mate: Through the lens of dating, a marketing professor looks at how people make choices."
https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/insights/four-minute-search-perfect-mate

* Theresa E. DiDonato, "Is Love at First Sight Real? A compelling idea, but is there scientific evidence to support it?"
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/meet-catch-and-keep/201801/is-love-first-sight-real

* Lindzhi Wessel, "Can human pheromones really influence our attraction to others? A new study says two putative pheromones cannot."
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/03/do-human-pheromones-actually-exist

* John Tierney, "The Science of Online Dating and Compatibility Testing"
https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/29/science/29tier.html

* Eli J. Finkel et al., "Online Dating: A Critical Analysis From the Perspective of Psychological Science"
http://psi.sagepub.com/content/13/1/3.full?ijkey=cK9EB6/4zQ0AM&keytype=ref&siteid=sppsi

* APS, "Romantic Matches Are Hard to Predict Before People Meet"
https://www.psychologicalscience.org/news/releases/romantic-matches-are-hard-to-predict.html

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IV. THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE "GIFT OF FEAR", POLICE INTUITION, CRIMINAL PROFILING & POLICE INTERROGATIONS:

- DO MOST PEOPLE OPERATE UNDER AN IMPLICIT "TRUTH DEFAULT THEORY" THAT MAKES US TRUST MOST STRANGERS, AS TIM LEVIN SAYS? DOES THIS MAKE CIVIL SOCIETY POSSIBLE BUT LEAVE US OPEN TO PREDATORS LIKE BERNIE MADDOFF & LARRY NASSER WHO LOOK RESPECTABLY PROFESSIONAL & NON-THREATENING?

- CAN THE AVERAGE PERSON USE THEIR "GIFT OF FEAR" (I.E. INTUITION) TO SENSE WHEN A PERSON HAS CRIMINAL MOTIVES, AS GAVIN DEBECKER CLAIMS? OR IS THIS SOMETHING THAT REQUIRES EXTENSIVE TRAINING & STREET EXPERIENCE, SO THAT ONLY VETERAN COPS CAN DO IT CONSISTENTLY?

- ARE THERE PATTERNS IN THE REASONS PEOPLE ARE FALSELY SUSPECTED OF CRIMINALITY - E.G. RACIAL & CULTURAL BARRIERS IN THE CASE OF AMADOU DIALLO & "MISMATCHED BEHAVIOR" IN THE CASE OF AMANDA KNOX?

- DO WE KNOW IF RACIST BEHAVIOR IN POLICING MOSTLY THE RESULT OF EXPLICITLY RACIST BELIEFS OR UNCONSCIOUS/IMPLICIT BIAS? CAN WE DISCERN THIS BY CONTRASTING THE BEHAVIOR OF INTRARACIAL VE INTERRACIAL ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN POLICE & SUSPECTS?

- CAN IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TESTS PREDICT RACIAL BIASES IN HIGH-STRESS SITUATION LIKE POLICE SHOOTINGS? CAN ANTI-BIAS TRAINING SESSIONS HELP ALLEVIATE THIS BIAS? IF NOT, CAN ROUTINE CONTACT WITH MEMBERS OF OTHER RACES HELP, OR IS RACIAL BIAS FIXED?

- CAN CRIMINAL PROFILERS MAKE RELATIVELY ACCURATE ESTIMATES ABOUT A PERPETRATOR'S DEMOGRAPHICS, MINDSET & LIFE HISTORY BASED ON A CRIME SCENE & THEIR APPARENT M.O.?

- CAN SHORT STREET INTERVIEWS USUALLY ALLOW POLICE TO DETERMINE IF A SUSPECT IS LYING, OR ARE LONGER INTERROGATIONS IN THE POLICE STATION NEEDED, OR ARE THEY BOTH HEAVILY FLAWED?

- WHY HAVE CERTAIN INTERROGATION METHODS LIKE THE "REID TECHNIQUE" BECOME INFAMOUS FOR PRODUCING FALSE CONFESSIONS? CAN OTHER INTERROGATION METHODS HELP AVOID THIS? COULD VIDEO-TAPING ALL INTERROGATIONS HELP AS WELL?

4a) PoliceOne, "Detecting Deception through Body Language in High-Risk Situations" (video - 5:55 min, start at 0:20)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4_3fgzqG-eg&t=20s

4b) Equilibrium Television, "Psychology Mythbusting: Criminal Profiling" (video - 6:21 min.)
https://youtu.be/5Y5sLK5lC0A

* Jim Glennon, "Intuition on the street: Harnessing the power of the sixth sense"
https://www.policeone.com/health-fitness/articles/1639260-Intuition-on-the-street-Harnessing-the-power-of-the-sixth-sense/

* M. Wright, "Shining a light on the intuition of homicide detectives"
https://digest.bps.org.uk/2013/06/10/shining-a-light-on-the-intuition-of-homicide-detectives/

* C. Trojan & C. Salfati, "Does a murderer's crime-scene behaviour echo his criminal history?"
http://bps-research-digest.blogspot.com/2011/03/is-murderers-crime-scene-behaviour.html

* Shari Schwartz, "The Junk Science of Criminal Profiling"
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/junk-science-criminal-profiling-shari-schwartz-ph-d-/

* Lea Winerman, "Criminal profiling: the reality behind the myth - Forensic psychologists are working with law enforcement officials to integrate psychological science into criminal profiling."
https://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug04/criminal

* Ian Sample, "Psychological profiling 'worse than useless' - Profiling of killers has no real-world value, wastes police time and risks bringing the profession into disrepute, experts say."
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/sep/14/psychological-profile-behavioural-psychology

* Lawrence Miller, "Flaw and Order: The Science and Mythology of Criminal Profiling"
https://skepticalinquirer.org/2015/01/flaw-and-order-the-science-and-mythology-of-criminal-profiling/

* Laurence Miller, "Flaw and Order: The Science and Mythology of Criminal Profiling. Somewhere between hard forensic science and Hollywood-cop psychobabble, criminal profiling struggles to find a legitimate place in law enforcement’s investigative toolbox."
https://skepticalinquirer.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/29/2015/01/p54.pdf

* Brent Snooker, Paul Gendreau, Craig Bennell & Paul J. Taylor, "Criminal Profiling: Granfalloons and Gobbledygook"
http://www.mun.ca/psychology/brl/publications/14-2_Criminal_profiling.pdf

* Bryanna Fox, "Is Criminal Profiling Dead? Should It Be? A new study examines the art and science of a famous practice"
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/real-criminal-minds/201904/is-criminal-profiling-dead-should-it-be

* Emil Karlsson, "The Criminal Profiling Deception"
https://debunkingdenialism.com/2013/07/23/the-criminal-profiling-deception/

* Christopher E. Kelly, "Developing a Science of Interrogation: Effective Interrogation Relies on Sound Moral Principles"
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/sound-science-sound-policy/201509/developing-science-interrogation

* Douglas Starr, "This psychologist explains why people confess to crimes they didn’t commit"
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/06/psychologist-explains-why-people-confess-crimes-they-didn-t-commit

* Drake Bennett, "The Dark Science of Interrogation: How To Find Out Anything From Anyone"
https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2015-dark-science-of-interrogation/

* Julia Shaw, "What Netflix's 'The Confession Tapes' Teach Us about the Psychology of Interrogations: The take-home message is that we need to change the way police do interrogations--and do it fast"
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/what-netflixs-the-confession-tapes-teach-us-about-the-psychology-of-interrogations/

* T.J. Raphael, "How science and counterterrorism are reinventing US police interrogations"
https://www.pri.org/stories/2016-05-27/how-science-and-counterterrorism-are-reinventing-us-police-interrogations

* Tom James, "Can Cops Unlearn Their Unconscious Biases? 'Implicit bias' training is spreading to departments around the country, the theory being it can influence officer behavior on the street. But it’s still not clear that the classes actually work."
https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/12/implicit-bias-training-salt-lake/548996/

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