let's be honest, Science is full of challenges and opportunities. And it use to take 10s of years to contribute cutting-edge research. Were lucky today like Bill Gates Lucky. Mr. Gates got to be the 1st generation of people having access to a personal computer along with Steve Jobs and Linus Torvalds (the creator of Linux), Just as they paved the way for the future of innovation we too get to pave the way and be the 1st generation to have access to CRISPR Cas 9 at an affordable price. What once took a whole building full of scientist to edit genes now can be done in our garage. It used to take years and years to create scientific results today we can do it in less than 6 months maybe even months. This group is for people who have the free time or dedication exploring interesting and unique Scientific questions that could that could be as simple as the way we enjoy tea or for the 21 an older beer, to revolutionizing crops, and even the way we manufacture medicine. the doors are open and anyone can contribute to a future that holds endless possibilities.
Though RNA (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNA) is also involved and you should learn about RNA most basic genetic engineering processes can be done without focusing heavily on RNA. So let’s get started.
DNA or DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, is the genetic code and when I say code I mean code. Though DNA doesn’t really do anything mechanical in the cell it gives the cell instructions for how to make things that do. Think of each cell like a 3D printer and the DNA is the code for the 3D printer, the DNA tells the cell what proteins it should make when certain circumstances happen.
What is a protein? A protein is a little nanomachine. This nanomachine is composed of amino acids (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid) linked together and these amino acids determine the protein’s structure and function. The DNA codes for which amino acids will eventually be linked to together. DNA is the instruction set for the cell to 3D print proteins. The order of the amino acids being linked together determine what the protein looks like and what its function is. DNA has it’s own markers that delineate sections which each create proteins and these sections are called genes.
So let’s give an example of how the cell would use DNA and proteins. Cells need resources and this can come in the form of sugars and nitrogen containing compounds. But in order for the cell to use and convert these resources they need proteins to do so. A cell will then sense it needs an amino acid which will activate some of the DNA to be turned into proteins. The proteins will then take these sugars and other molecules and through chemical reactions convert them into molecules that the cells want. If you did some genetic engineering the cells will convert the sugars into molecules or proteins that you want!
Here is a video that explains about DNA and how it turns into proteins